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Unit 3 Notes Final
 

Unit 3 Notes Final

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    Unit 3 Notes Final Unit 3 Notes Final Presentation Transcript

    • THE 1920’S, GREAT DEPRESSION & NEW DEAL Unit # 3
    • ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
      • 1) What is “modern culture” and how did the decade of the 1920’s reflect its meaning?
      •  
      • 2) What happens when traditional and modern cultures interact?
      • 3) How can economic excesses contribute to hardship and instability in America?
      • 4) What is the proper role of the government in people’s lives?
      • 5) Did the New Deal move American closer or further away from its founding ideals?
    • WARREN HARDING & SCANDAL - CALVIN COOLIDGE The 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • WARREN G. HARDING
      • 29 th President (1921-1923)
        • Dies in 1923 from heart attack
      • He called for “A Return to Normalcy” 
        • Re-create America and go back to simpler days
        • Before the Progressive Era and World War
      • Like Wilson, he looked to
      • create a peaceful
      • U.S. and Europe.
    • 1920 Presidential Electoral Votes
    • THE HARDING ADMINISTRATION
      • Harding’s cabinet involves many successful politicians
        • Charles Evans Hughes (Sec. of State)
        • Herbert Hoover (Sec. of Commerce)
        • Andrew Mellon (Sec. of Treasury)
    • THE UGLY SIDE OF THE HARDING ADM.
      • Ohio Gang – Harding’s friends who created great embarrassment and corruption
      • Teapot Dome Oil Scandal, Veterans Affairs, Office of Alien Property
      • One of the most corrupt cabinets ever
    • SCANDAL
      • Teapot Dome Scandal
        • Oil rich lands set aside for use by the US Navy
        • Albert Fall (Sec. of Interior) transfers land from the U.S. Navy to Interior Dept.
        • Land is then leased off the private oil companies
        • Fall takes a bribe
        • 1 st American to be convicted while a cabinet member
    • “ SILENT CAL” TAKES OVER
      • Harding dies suddenly on Aug. 2, 1923
      • Vice-President Calvin Coolidge takes over office
        • Coolidge began to clean America of scandal
        • He forces the resignation of scandalous officials and restores faith in the office of the President
        • Coolidge easily wins the Election of 1924 ‘
          • hands-off’ President
          • Pro-Business
        • Did not run for re-election in 1928 surprising the public
    • Calvin Coolidge, 30 th President of the United States Coolidge brought trust back to the Office of the President but never ran for re-election. Many believe because his son died while Coolidge was in office
    • AMERICA & THE WORLD
      • How does G.B. and France pay back war loans to the U.S.?
        • $10 billion is owed to America
        • Fordney-McCumber Tariff  raised tariffs on U.S. imports to 60% (made it difficult for Europe to sell goods to U.S.)
    • THE DAWES PLAN
        • Dawes Plan – American investors loan money to Germany, $2.5 billion, so they can pay back G.B. and France (US gets paid back with their own money)
        • Creates resentment around the world
    •  
    • FOREIGN POLICY AFTER WAR
      • Return to Isolationism
      • Washington Naval Conference – Five major naval powers decide to disarm their navy
      • Kellogg-Briand Pact 
        • Signed by 15 countries
        • Renounced war as a national policy
        • Allow Germany into the L.O.N.
    • MASS MEDIA & CONSUMERISM
      • Growing education led to increased literacy
        • Newspaper circulation
        • Reader’s Digest and Time Magazine
      • Impact of the radio
        • News, sports, entertainment, advertisements
    • 1920’S PROSPERITY
      • = Quality of life
      • U.S. controls 40% of wealth
      • Incomes rise (people have extra income)
      • Use of electricity
      • Electric irons
      • Refrigerators, cooking ranges, toasters, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, electric sewing machine
      • Growing auto and airplane industry
      • Standards of Living
      • New Conveniences
    • MODERN ADVERTISING
      • Study how to make products appeal to people
      • Focus on youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth
      • Listerine
      “ She was a beautiful girl and talented too. She had the advantages of education and better clothes than girls of her set. She possessed that culture and poise that travel brings. Yet in the one pursuit that stands foremost in the mind of every girl and women-marriage-she was a failure.” – What is this an advertisement for???
    • YOUR ASSIGNMENT
      • Take the role of someone in advertising and create your own creative ad for a 1920’s product
      • One PowerPoint Slide with a picture , catchy slogan , and brief information about the product
      Meals & Snacks: Beverages: Other Products: Planter's Peanuts Hires Root Beer Radio Wheaties (1924) Kool-Aid drink mix Phonograph Kraft cheese 7-UP (1929) Fountain Pens Gold Medal Flour Orange Crush Hallmark Greeting Cards Kellogg's Corn Flakes Coca-Cola Cigarette Lighters Oscar Mayer wieners (1929) Dr. Pepper Dixie Cups Birds-Eye frozen vegetables (1928) Pepsi-Cola Sani-Paper Towels Del Monte canned foods Welch's grape juice Kellogg's Rice “Krispies” (1928) Fruit Smack drink mix Peter Pan peanut butter (1928) Libby's canned tomato soup Green Giant canned peas (1925) THIS LIST CAN BE USED OR YOU CAN CHOOSE Jell-O ice cream powder ANOTHER PRODUCT THAT YOU FIND; IT MUST Cracker Jack BE A PRODUCT THAT WAS CREATED OR Cream Of Wheat POPULAR DURING THE 1920’s.
    • AMERICAN HEROES AND AMERICAN CULTURE The 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • AMERICA TAKES OFF
      • Charles Lindbergh – first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
      • “ Spirit of St. Louis” travels from New York to Paris
      • 33 hours and 29 minutes (3,614 miles)
      • Lindbergh becomes an American icon but faces a great deal of tragedy later in life (kidnapped son and critical public remarks)
    •  
    •  
    • AMERICA IN FLIGHT
      • Amelia Earhart – First women to fly across the Atlantic (15 hours from Newfoundland to Ireland)
      • 1927 – Pan American Airways is founded and begin handling airmail deliveries.
      “ In the spring of 1927, something bright and alien flashed across the sky. A young Minnesotan who seemed to have nothing to do with his generation did a heroic thing, and for a moment people set down their glasses in country clubs and speakeasies and thought of their old best dreams.”
    • BASEBALL HEROES
      • 1919 Chicago White Sox World Series Scandal
      • Andrew Foster - the “Father of Black Baseball
      • Babe Ruth – New York Yankees baseball star
        • hit 60 homeruns in 1927
      • Baseball becomes America’s national pastime
    • MORE SPORTS
      • Jack Dempsey – Famous boxing Champion
        • Fought in 1 st $ million fight
      • Jack Johnson – First black boxing champion
      • Gertrude Ederle – First woman to swim the English Channel in 1926
      • Helen Wills – Won 31 major tennis championships including 7 US Open titles
    • POW!
    •  
      • FADS
      • DISCOVERIES
      • Crossword puzzles
      • Mahjong
      • Quija boards
      • Spectator sports
      • Dance Marathons
      • Flagpole Sitting
      • Dominoes
      • Races
      • King Tut Discovery (1922)
      • Egyptian Fashion
      • Insulin (diabetes)
      • Frozen Food
      • Penicillin (1928)
      • Kodak color film
    •  
    • WOMEN & FLAPPERS OF THE 1920’S The 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • The Traditional (Victorian) Woman 1890-1918
    • Description of the 1920’s Woman - Independent - Unconventional - Ambitious - Adventurous - Fun-loving - Intelligent - Free - Assertive - Foolish - “garconne”
      • Flapper = an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fads, fashions, and urban attitudes of the Roaring Twenties
      • She wore:
        • Close-fitting felt hats
        • Bright waistless dresses above the knee
        • Sleek pumps
        • Strings of beads and jewels
        • Short, bobbed black hair
        • Make-up
      • She: smoked, drank alcohol in public, cursed, drove cars, dated, danced
      A New Ideal for Women
    • Flapper Fashion
    • Flapper Fashion
      • More women were deciding not to marry
        • Marriages were based more on romantic love and companionship
      • - Birthrate declined throughout the 1920s
        • - Birth control information became public in 1916 and clinics were opened nationwide
      • - Ready-made products in department stores and supermarkets, electric appliances, and personal transportation made life in the home more pleasant
      • - Juggling work and home and rebellious teens became the focal points of many families
    • The Reality
      • Mass media promoted the idea of the flapper
      • Flapper was more an image of rebellious youth than a widespread reality
      • Social morals loosened, but not as much as the flapper culture would suggest
      • A double standard existed even in the urban society
        • set of accepted principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
    • What is Gender?
      • Directions :
      • Two columns (men / women)
      • Think of all of the characteristics of men and women (biological, physical, psychological, intellectual, emotional, competencies, aptitudes, etc.)
      • List them side-by-side in a comparison/contrast mode ( weak v. strong )
      • Feel free to use historically held or stereotypical ideas.
    • Gender = a set of cultural roles What is Gender?
      • What are the historical stereotypical attributes of both genders in American society?
      • How are the historical attributes different from the current definitions of gender today?
      • What is your opinion of your gender’s cultural roles?
    • A “LOST GENERATION”
      • Post-World War I authors
      • Phrase dubbed by Gertrude Stein
        • Lost values
        • No belief in human progress
        • A mood of futility and despair
      “ You are all a lost generation” ~ Gertrude Stein in conversation w/ Ernest Hemingway
    • AMERICAN LITERATURE
      • Ernest Hemingway –
        • “ The Sun Also Rises”, “Farewell to Arms”
        • Criticized the glorification of war
      • Sinclair Lewis –
        • “ Babbit”
        • First American to win Nobel Prize in Lit.
        • Criticized Americans for their conformity & materialism
    • AMERICAN LIT.
      • F. Scott Fitzgerald –
        • “ The Great Gatsby”
        • Put a negative twist on the wealthy and attractive people in America.
      • T.S. Eliot
        • “ The Wasteland”
        • A view of society w/ no morals or humanity
      • John Dos Passos, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Willa Cather
    • THE ARTS
      • George Gershwin – Musical composer the was truly an “american” sound
      • Georgia O’Keeffe – Colorful artist that captured the feeling of New York
    • ENTERTAINMENT
      • Charlie Chaplin’s slapstick humor in silent films were shown throughout the 20’s
      • Walt Disney and animated film
        • Steamboat Willie
      • “ Jazz Singer” released in 1927 – first major film w/ sound
    • 1920’s Films
    • HARLEM RENAISSANCE
      • Outburst of creative activity among African Americans
      • Harlem district of New York City
      • Celebration of African American culture
      • Reasons for the movement
        • African American migration to northern cities
        • Sense of experimentation in America
        • New and charismatic leadership
    •  
    •  
    • THE POLITICAL SIDE
      • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded in 1909.
        • The Crisis – African American magazine that called for civil rights
        • James Weldon Johnson – NAACP Secretary that fought for anti-lynching laws
        • Main goal to protest racial violence
    • “ Chain Gang” by William Johnson
    • “ Soul History” by Romare Bearden
    • THE POLITICAL SIDE
      • Marcus Garvey
        • Jamaican immigrant that called for a separate society for Afr. Americans
        • Universal Negro Improvement Association (1914) founded by Garvey
        • “ Back to Africa” movement
        • Awakens black pride, economic independence and a love of Africa
    • “ Les Fetiches” by Lois Mailou Jones
    • HARLEM CULTURE
      • Poetry
        • Claude McKay
        • Langston Hughes
        • Zora Neale Hurston
        • Countee Cullen
      • Artists
        • Palmer Hayden
        • Lois Mailou Jones
        • William Johnson
    • HARLEM CULTURE
      • Jazz
        • the first truly American sound
        • Louis Armstrong
        • Duke Ellington
        • Bessie Smith
      • Performers
        • Paul Robeson
        • Josephine Baker
      • All greatly contribute to the increasing cultural atmosphere of Harlem
    • “ Jammin’ at the Savoy” by Romare Bearden
    • TRADITIONAL VERSUS MODERN CULTURE The 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • POST WAR FEARS
      • Nativism - hostility towards immigrants - sweeps the nation
      • Isolationism – U.S. shifts back to staying out of foreign affairs
      • A great fear of communism exists in the United States
      • It is the beginning of the 1 st Red Scare
    • Who are the undesirables?
    • RED SCARE
      • Red (Communist) Scare – Wave of panic throughout the U.S.
        • Primarily due to Bolshevik Revolution in Russia (Lenin)
      • Communist Party is formed in the US
      • Palmer Raids
        • Arrests on suspected “communists” and undesirables in America
        • Mitchell Palmer – Attorney General of the United States leads the attack against communists
        • J. Edgar Hoover – Special Assistant to Mitchell
    • PALMER RAIDS
      • Violate civil liberties and deport hundreds without trials
      • Fails to turn up any evidence
      • Palmer (potential Pres. Candidate) loses all credibility
    • SACCO AND VANZETTI
      • Nicola Sacco and Bartolomea Vanzetti
        • Both were Italian and admitted anarchists
      • Arrested for robbery and murder in 1920
      • Both say they were innocent and provided alibis
      • The judge made prejudice remarks and the two were sentenced to death
      • Executed in 1927 (electric chair)
    • “ IN ALL MY LIFE I HAVE NEVER STOLE, NEVER KILLED, NEVER SPILLED BLOOD…WE WERE TRIED DURING A TIME…WHEN THERE WAS HYSTERIA OF RESENTMENT AND HATE AGAINST THE PEOPLE OF OUR PRINCIPLES, AGAINST THE FOREIGNER…I AM SUFFERING BECAUSE I AM A RADICAL; I HAVE SUFFERED BECAUSE I WAS AN ITALIAN AND INDEED I AM AN ITALIAN… ~ BARTOLOMEA VANZETTI
    • “ The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti” by Ben Shahn The Characters standing are the President of Harvard University (middle), President of MIT, and a former Massachusetts judge Grant; All known for the prejudice feelings. This case came to symbolize the rift between immigrants and native-born Americans at the time
    • The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti divided the nation concerning values, rights and immigration.
    • A Time of Labor Unrest
      • Why did conflict between labor and management increase after the war?
      • During WWI, the US Labor Administration prevented labor unions from striking.
      • Why did the public turn against the strikers?
      • In 1919, there were more than 3,000 strikes involving approximately 4 million workers
      • Why did labor union membership decline in the 1920s?
      • Workers wanted better wages and working conditions (wages had not kept pace with inflation)
    • The "American Plan"
      • the American Plan = anti-labor policy advocated by employers
        • it was un-American for a worker to “have” to join a union to get a job (a.k.a. no closed shop agreements)
        • by refusing to negotiate with unions, employers were “protecting” workers’ rights to work (a.k.a. no collective bargaining )
    • The "American Plan"
      • actions taken by “American Plan” companies:
        • offered benefits (higher wages, stock ownership, vacation time, etc.)
        • allowed formation of local company-based unions with no outside affiliations and little power
        • fired striking workers and union representatives
        • created propaganda associating unions with communists, socialists, and anarchists
    • The Boston Police Strike
      • Boston police had not been given a raise since the start of WWI
      • Representatives who asked for a raise were fired
      • Remaining 1,117 officers went on strike in September 1919
      • Fear for public safety generated national attention
    • The Boston Police Strike
      • MA governor, Calvin Coolidge, called out the National Guard
      • “ There is no right to strike against public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.”
    • The Boston Police Strike
      • After the strike ended, the striking officers were not allowed to return to work
      • New officers were hired and trained
      • Coolidge was praised for “saving Boston, if not the nation, from communism and anarchy”
    • Other Post-War Strikes
      • Steel Mill Strike
      • Coal Miners Strike
    • Labor Movement Loses Appeal
      • Reasons for the decline:
        • unions were linked to Communists, socialists, and anarchists
        • much of the work force consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions
        • immigrant workers were difficult to organize because they spoke many different languages (not English)
        • farmers who had migrated to the cities to find factory jobs were used to self-reliance
        • most unions excluded African-Americans
    • BRIEF HISTORY OF THE KLAN
      • Established in 1866 (Tennessee) by Nathan Forrest
        • Ex-Confederate Soldiers
        • Known as the “Invisible Empire of the South”
        • Main goal was to stop blacks from voting
      • The Klan practically disappears towards the end of the 1800’s
    • THE KKK IN THE 1920’S
      • The film, “Birth of a Nation,” helps increase membership
      • Promoted “100% Americanism”
      • KKK membership reaches its high – 4.5 million in 1924
      • Oppose blacks, Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreigners
      • Influential in same state politics
      • Lost power by the end of the decade b/c of criminal activity
    •  
    •  
    • SCIENCE VERSUS RELIGION
      • Traditional ideas
        • Fundamentalism --- Literal interpretation of the Bible (called for the end of teaching evolution)
        • Claimed man could not have evolved from apes (believe in Biblical creation theory)
        • Belief held widely in rural communities (urban v. rural clash)
        • Butler Law (1925)  Tennessee law that forbids the teaching of evolution in the classroom
    • SCIENCE V. RELIGION
      • Modern ideas
        • Theory of Evolution (ideas of Charles Darwin)
          • “ Origin of the Species”
        • Belief that man has evolved from apes
        • Increasingly accepted idea, especially in urban areas (urban / rural divide)
    •  
    • SCOPES MONKEY TRIAL
      • John Scopes (biology teacher) challenged the Butler Law
        • Scopes is arrested and his trial was set
      • ACLU hires Clarence Darrow (an agnostic) to defend him
      • William Jennings Bryan (fundamentalist) serves as a prosecutor
      • Darrow tricked Bryan into saying the Bible was subject to interpretation
      • Scopes found guilty and fined $100 (law stays in effect till 1967)
    •  
    • THE ATTORNEYS
      • William Jennings Bryan
        • Creationism
      • Clarence Darrow
      • Evolution
      • Why is the hand labeled “Tennessee”?
      • In the opinion of the cartoonist, what is the verdict in Tennessee going to do to education?
      • Does this cartoonist agree with the verdict? What are your clues?
      • Who do you think is the character in the cartoon?
      • What is the opinion of the cartoonist about the verdict of the trial? How do you know?
    • PROHIBITION AND ORGANIZED CRIME The 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • THE PROHIBITION DEBATE
      • Debate over prohibition lasted throughout the 1800’s and early 1900’s.
      • Led by women’s and religious groups (Anti-Saloon League)
      • 18 th Amendment – “illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport alcoholic beverages in the U.S.”
        • Volstead Act – Provided enforcement for the 18 th Amendment
    •  
    • Why do you think it was so difficult to enforce the Volstead Act?
    •  
    • CULTURE OF PROHIBITION ERA
      • “ Speakeasies” --- Illegal bars that were part of “bootlegging” (the sale of illegal liquor)
      • Bootleggers --- People who obtained alcohol illegally and sold it
      • Rum-Runners --- People who used boats to smuggle alcohol
      • Organized Crime – Increases due to prohibition
      • Prohibition repealed in 1933 (21 st Amendment)
    • ORGANIZED CRIME
      • “ Scarface” Al Capone was the most notorious gangster of the era
      • Capone becomes “Public Enemy # 1” after the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
      • Capone is eventually caught by Eliot Ness for tax evasion (died in prison)
      “ In his forty-eight years, Capone had left his mark on the rackets and on Chicago, and more than anyone else he had demonstrated the folly of Prohibition; in the process he also made a fortune. Beyond that, he captured and held the imagination of the American public as few public figures ever do. “
    • Al Capone His nickname was “Scarface” after he was attacked by a man who was defending his sister. Capone received three cuts from the knife.
    • “ PRETTY BOY” FLOYD
      • Notorious bank robber who killed more than a dozen men
      • Responsible for the Union Station Massacre in Kansas City
      • Also become Public Enemy # 1
      • Shot and killed by the authorities in 1934
    • Causes and Effects of Prohibition
    • THE GREAT DEPRESSION & NEW DEAL 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
      • Policy of laissez-faire
      • Lower government spending
      • Lower taxes
      • Higher tariffs
      • Subsidies and loans to encourage business growth
      • Decrease in national debt
      1920’s Republican Formula for Success
    •  
    • THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA
      • Coolidge once said, “The business of America is business.”
      • Gov’t was laissez-faire
      • Tariffs were high to protect American business
      • Wages were increasing along with productivity
    •  
    • THE AUTOMOBILE
      • The backbone of American industry in the 1920’s
      • Henry Ford’s assembly line (1913) allows price of cars to be affordable for all
        • $950 in 1909 to $250 in 1925
      • 23 million registered cars by 1930
      • Not only a luxury any more, but accessible to the middle class as well
    • The number of registered automobiles in America increased by more than 20 million from 1910-1930.
    • The “Tin Lizzie” or Ford Model T was the most popular automobile
    • IMPACT OF THE AUTOMOBILE
      • Paved roads (Route 66 Across America)
      • Houses construction  carports, garages, and driveways
      • Gas stations, repair shops, motels, traffic signals, bridges and tunnels
      • No longer kept families isolated from one another
      • Allows urban sprawl
      • Promote economic bases (Detroit, Flint, Akron)
      • Revolutionize American industry
    •  
    • FUNCTIONS OF THE STOCK MARKET AND BANKING 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1928
      • Republican domination in the 1920’s
      • The Candidates
        • Herbert Hoover – Republican candidate
        • Al Smith – Democratic candidate (Irish Catholic, not well known)
      • Hoover easily wins the election
        • 444 electoral votes, Smith - 87 electoral
      • Significance  Shows that the American public are happy with Republican leadership
    • Herbert Hoover (Republican) – 30 th President of the United States of America. Hoover is remembered as the President during the start of the Great Depression He calls for “Rugged Individualism”  In the style of laissez-faire politics
    • CAUSES OF THE DEPRESSION
      • Industrial failures (# 1)
        • Railroads, textiles and steel barely made a profit
          • Due to new forms of transportation, high tariffs, and war time debt.
        • Coal mining and lumbering not in such high demand after the war.
        • Even the automobile, construction and consumer goods industries began to weaken by the end of the decade.
        • American industry is showing signs of weakening.
      • Farmer Crisis (# 2)
        • During the war, crops prices rose and farmers took out loans.
        • In the 20’s, farmers boost production in hopes of making more money (prices decrease)
        • Farm incomes decrease greatly and many farms have to foreclose and property seized
        • Price-Supports / Subsidies – Gov’t plan to buy surplus goods and sell them to the world market
    • CAUSES (CON’T)
      • Living on Credit (# 3)
        • Consumers bought goods on credit – spending money they don’t actually have
        • Overspeculation (Buying on Margin) – Invest in more stock than they can afford
        • Consumers and investors build up large debts
      • Uneven distribution of wealth ( # 4)
        • Despite the rise of a middle class, the rich get richer and poor get poorer
        • Most Americans could not participate in the economic advances of the 1920’s.
        • Middle and Lower classes affected the greatest during the Depression
    • STOCK MARKET CRASHES
      • Stock market prices begin to fall and confidence decreases.
      • Black Tuesday (Oct. 29, 1929) – Bottom fell out of the market
        • Shareholders sell their stocks before prices go down even more.
        • Many suffer huge debts while others lose most of their savings.
        • Investors lost about $ 30 Billion (same as US spent on WWI)
    • “ THE BIG BULL MARKET WAS DEAD. BILLIONS OF DOLLARS’ WORTH OF PROFITS – AND PAPER PROFITS – HAD DISAPPEARED. THE GROCER, THE WINDOW CLEANER, AND THE SEAMSTRESS HAD LOST THEIR CAPITAL [SAVINGS]. IN EVERY TOWN THERE WERE FAMILIES WHICH HAD SUDDENLY DROPPED FROM SHOWY AFFLUENCE INTO DEBT… WITH THE BIG BULL MARKET GONE AND PROSPERITY GOING, AMERICANS WERE SOON TO FIND THEMSELVES LIVING IN AN ALTERED WORLD WHICH CALLED FOR NEW ADJUSTMENTS, NEW IDEAS, NEW HABITS OF THOUGHT, AND A NEW ORDER OF VALUES.” ~ FREDERICK LEWIS ALLEN On the 1929 Stock Market Crash…
    • THE COLLAPSE – AN OVERVIEW
      • Great Depression – Period from 1929-1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed.
      • The Statistics
        • Bank Failure – By 1933, 11,000 of 25,000 banks fail
        • Businesses fail (90,000 businesses total)
        • Unemployment rises drastically (25% or 13 million workers)
      • Economic Depression becomes a worldwide problem.
    • Warm Up : After reading the excerpt, answer the following question: If you were living during the Great Depression, do you think that you would feel the same way as Senator Huey Long or would you be more optimistic about the future of America? “ This great and grand dream of America, that all men are created free and equal, endowed with the inalienable right of life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness, this great dream of America, this great light, and this great hope, have almost gone out of sight in this day and time, and everybody knows it. There is a mere candle flicker here and yonder to take place of what the great dream of America was supposed to be.” ~ Senator Huey Long of Louisiana
    • THE IMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON SOCIETY 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • With millions unemployed, men looked everywhere for jobs to put food on the tables for their families. The Depression impacts not just those with money in the Stock Market, but even the common worker and family.
    • IMPACT IN THE CITY
      • Throughout the cities, the unemployed and homeless increase
      • Shantytowns – Little towns consisting of shacks spring up everywhere (also called Hoovervilles)
      • Soup Kitchens and bread lines (lines of people waiting to receive food provided by charities) become common place
    • Breadline full of men in New York City
    • A lone man stands during the Dust Storms in Oklahoma
    • Dust Bowl in Oklahoma during the Great Depression
    • What Was The Dust Bowl?
      • Catastrophic eight-year drought that hit the Midwestern states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico
      • Drought started in 1931
    •  
    • Timeline of The Dust Bowl 1931 - Severe drought hits the Midwestern and southern plains. As the crops die, the 'black blizzards" begin. Dust from the over-plowed and over-grazed land begins to blow. 1932 - The number of dust storms increases. Fourteen are reported this year; next year there will be 38. 1934 – (May) Great dust storms spread from the Dust Bowl area. The drought is the worst ever in U.S. history, covering more than 75 percent of the country and affecting 27 states severely. 1934 – (December ) The "Yearbook of Agriculture" for 1934 announces, "Approximately 35 million acres of formerly cultivated land have essentially been destroyed for crop production. . . . 100 million acres now in crops have lost all or most of the topsoil; 125 million acres of land now in crops are rapidly losing topsoil. . . "
    • What Caused The Dust Bowl?
      • Farming practices of the Midwestern farmers (plowing millions of acres of grassland)
      • Severe Drought – lack of rainfall
      • Severe weather patterns (tornadoes, blizzards, dust storms, extremes in temperature)
    • Dust Storm
    • What Were The Effects?
      • Farm foreclosures – destruction of crops forced many farmers to default on their mortgage payments
      • Dust Bowl families were displaced and became migrants roaming the Midwest (often migrating to California)
        • Okies – nickname for the migrants (since so many of them came from Oklahoma)
    •  
    • What Were The Effects?
      • Government program targeted to help farmers:
        • Agricultural Adjustment Act –
          • provided funds to keep farmers from losing their land,
          • established farm subsidies to lower farm production and raise crop prices,
          • set quotas for farmers to prevent overproduction
    • Faces of the Dust Bowl
    • “ Okies” on their way to California, a photograph very much like the scenes from “Grapes of Wrath”
    • THE AMERICAN FAMILY
      • Families stand as a symbol of strength, but even they begin to break under the pressures
      • Families entertain themselves by listening to radio and playing games
        • Monopoly – 1933
      • Many suffer the difficulties of unemployment and families lose their homes
    • Homeless Family on the road during the Depression
    • MEN OF THE DEPRESSION
      • Some men abandon their families because of shame and discouragement
      • Hoboes – Mostly men who wandered the country, sleeping under bridges and on railroads (approx. 300,000)
      • Very little relief to families during the early years of depression
    • WOMEN OF THE DEPRESSION
      • Women still responsible for much of the household chores and raising children
      • Work diligently to save money and some even work
        • Many people become angered that women are working since many men were not.
      • Women suffer just as much as men even though they are not seen suffering as much
    • “ Migrant Mother” (1936) is the most well-known photograph from the Great Depression time period By Dorothea Lange
    • CHILDREN OF THE DEPRESSION
      • Poor diets and health problems (lack of milk)
      • Many schools lose funding and have to close down (children forces to work often times in sweatshops)
      • Many young teenagers leave home for adventure and work (many are killed by criminals or injured on the trains)
    • The inside of a school in Alabama
    • AFRICAN AMERICANS & HISPANICS
      • Unemployment is 30%-60% than whites
      • Numerous racial concerns
        • Scottsboro Boys
      • African American organizations become split because of goals (Fighting poverty v. Ending discrimination)
      • Many Hispanics were forced to relocate
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
      • Negatives
        • Between 1928-32, suicides rise more than 30%
        • Many more admitted to mental institutes
        • Health, marriage, and even the future of families are put off
      • Positives
        • There is a sense of brotherhood that is formed. People helping one another through difficult situations (strong sense of charity)
      • Habits formed during the Depression shape an entire generation
    • TWO RESPONSES TO THE DEPRESSION 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • HOOVER’S IMMEDIATE RESPONSE
      • Tried to reassure the nation. Continue as usual.
      • “ Rugged Individualism”  American people will work hard, hold high moral values, engage in creative problem solving, waste less, and focus on independence
        • Gov’t should play a limited role
        • Opposed any welfare programs (no direct aid to the people)
          • Direct aid = corruption, laziness, and a connection to socialism
      • Hoover’s response confused and angered many Americans
    • QUICK RESPONSES Question # 1 – Think back to what you know of America? Is Rugged Individualism consistent with the definition of America? Why or why not? Question # 2 – What is the role of the federal government?
    • BOULDER DAM
      • Construction of a dam on the Colorado River
      • Built mostly through Hoover’s efforts
      • Later referred to as the Hoover Dam
      • 726 ft. high and 1,244 ft. long (tallest in the world)
      • Provided water supply and flood control throughout the west (still supplies LA and Las Vegas)
    • Above: Picture of the Colorado River before the Construction of the Dam Below: Diagram of the Hoover Dam
    • The Hoover Dam, as it was later called, was a $700 million project initiated by Herbert Hoover. It was approved in 1928 and construction began in 1929. The Dam supplies water throughout many Western states and cities, including Los Angeles and Las Vegas
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    • HOOVER’S AID – PT. I
      • Boulder Dam was an example of gov’t encouraging cooperation
      • Hoover believed in “trickle down” (top to bottom) economy
      • Committee for Unemployment Relief
        • Government committee that raised money for needy communities
        • Encouraged people and businesses to contribute to privately organized welfare funds called community chests
      Hoover’s Radio Address on Unemployment
    • HOOVER’S AID – PT.II
      • Federal Home Loan Bank Act
        • Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and farmers in order to avoid foreclosure
      • Reconstruction Finance Corporation
        • Government organization with the power to lend money from the national treasury
        • Lent $2 billion to banks, insurance companies, loan associations, railroads, and other businesses
        • Hoped to get business going again
        • Served as indirect relief (so it did not violate Hoover’s Rugged Individualism )
      • Too little, too late for Hoover
    • BONUS EXPEDITIONARY ARMY
      • 10,000-20,000 WWI vets and families arrive in Washington D.C. in 1932
      • Led by Walter Waters
      • Support the Patman Bill  Authorized gov’t to pay a bonus to WWI vets who had not been compensated for their service
      • Hoover opposed the bill and it is eventually rejected by Congress
      • Most of the Bonus Army leaves, but 2,000 stay to meet w/ the President
    • DISBANDING THE BONUS ARMY
      • 1,000 soldiers (led by Douglas MacArthur and Dwight D. Eisenhower) arrive to remove the Bonus Army
      • B.A. is gassed (many injured, few die)
      • The public is stunned by military response (McArthur’s choice, not Hoover’s)
      • Hoover looks very bad and ensures that the Election of 1932 will go against him
    • The Bonus Army March Hoover considered many criminals or communists, but allowed them to assemble. Public reaction towards Hoover and the government’s actions were negative. Franklin Roosevelt believed this was the event that won him the election in 1932.
    • ELECTION OF 1932
      • Herbert Hoover  re-nominated by Republicans
      • Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)  Democrat
        • FDR easily wins election
    • Franklin Delano Roosevelt – 32 nd President of the United States of America Roosevelt was President longer than any other in history (12 years). Roosevelt’s term as President is primarily the reason for the 22 nd Amendment FDR & THE NEW DEAL
    • Policy Differences
    • THREE “R’S” OF THE NEW DEAL
      • Relief, Recovery, Reform
        • Relief  Ease the suffering of Americans
        • Recovery  Lay the foundation for economic growth
        • Reform  Prevent future economic crisis
      • “ The only thing to fear is fear itself”
        • From 1 st Inaugural Address
    • THE 1 ST “100 DAYS”
      • 100 Days  Intense gov’t action in first 100 days of office
        • 15 bills passed
      • Period when the New Deal was created
        • Programs designed to help the American people (“Alphabet Soup”)
      • Bills during this time reflected FDR’s stance on America and its needs
    • FIRESIDE CHATS
      • Fireside Chats  radio talks about issues of public concern, explaining very clearly FDR’s New Deal programs
        • Very easy for the average American to understand
        • Radio speeches range on all types of topics and used to convince Americans of the merit of his New Deal programs
        • March 12, 1933 till the end of his Presidency
    • Roosevelt’s “fireside chats” helped to restore confidence first in the banking industry and later in many of his New Deal programs
    • 2 ND NEW DEAL
      • With general support among the public and backing by democratic Congress, FDR extended his New Deal programs
        • pushed by his wife Eleanor Roosevelt
        • Second 100 Days  Called for more extended programs and greater gov’t relief
    • MOST FAMOUS NEW DEAL PROGRAM
      • Social Security Act (1935) – Intended to protect Americans who were unable to support themselves
        • 1) Provided unemployment compensation, 2) money for disabled workers and 3) money for children and widows in case of death
        • Most well known for old-age pension (% of employee and employer’s money paid back after retirement)
        • Possibility of undergoing serious change in the near future
    • ATTACKS ON THE NEW DEAL
      • Liberals feel FDR hasn’t gone far enough
      • Conservatives argue he has gone too far.
    • THE CRITICS
      • American Liberty League (Al Smith) – Conservatives who were against the New Deal programs
      • Upton Sinclair (Socialist) – “End Poverty in California”
        • Sinclair runs for Governor of California as a Democrat
      • Charles Coughlin (Roman Catholic priest) – spoke against Roosevelt
        • Had a radio audience of 40-50 million.
        • He loses support because of anti-Semitic views
    • MORE ATTACKS
      • Dr. Francis Townsend
        • devised a plan that would provide monthly payments to the elderly (Townsend Plan - $ 200/month)
      • Huey Long (Senator from Louisiana) – “Share our Wealth”
        • Impassioned and fiery speaker
        • Limit fortunes to $ 3-4 million
        • $ 5,000 homestead and $ 2,500 income
        • Free college education
        • Popularity was rising fast but was assassinated (Could have been a factor in the 1936 Presidential Election)
    • THE BATTLE IN THE COURTS
      • Older members of the Supreme Court call many New Deal laws unconstitutional
      • Court Packing controversy
        • FDR attempts to add more justices to the court
        • FDR tries to force some to retire and add more justices to the courts (not passed by Congress)
      • By the end of his 2 nd term, FDR elected 3 new justices (all together, he elects 7)
      • All are pro-New Deal
      • FDR wanted Congress to allow him to add 6 justices to the U.S. Supreme Court
      • All would be pro-New Deal
      • Congress did not pass this legislation
      • Afraid of an imbalance in the 3 branches of gov’t
    • LEGACY OF THE NEW DEAL 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • ENDING THE NEW DEAL
      • Many begin to doubt FDR’s New Deal programs when depression does not end
        • Stock Market takes a downturn in 1938 and more Americans lose jobs
      • Americans begin to look again overseas
        • Many foreign problems
        • WWII begins (more Americans go back to work and wartime industry takes off again)
      • New Deal eases the suffering of people, but WWII ends the depression
    • LONG TERM IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL
      • Extended power of federal gov’t (#1)
        • Gov’t helps out banks, industry and agriculture
        • Involvement is permanent
        • Still manage mortgage loans, still pay subsidies, electricity, watch the stock exchange, etc
      • Extend power of the President (#2)
        • Despite all the controversy, FDR is one of the most loved Presidents
        • FDR sets example that President must have strong executive power and did much to broaden the President’s role
    • LONG TERM (CON’T)
      • Deficit Spending (#3)
        • Spending more money than the gov’t has in taxes
        • Also called Keynesian economics (practiced by many Presidents in the future)
      • Federal Social Programs (#4)
        • Welfare State – view that the gov’t is responsible for the economic security of the people
        • Social Security, unemployment, federal housing, education, handicapped, mothers w/ dependent children
    • LONG TERM (CON’T)
      • Concern for workers (#5)
        • Working to give workers more rights, safer workplaces, and freedom from racial or sexual discrimination
      • Conservation Gains (#6)
        • Conservation becomes permanent part of legislation
        • Mentality of saving farmlands, forests, and America landscape for future generations
    • FINAL IMPACT
      • Renewed Faith in Democracy (#7)
        • Great Depression questioned the concept of democracy (especially during a time of rising Communism and Fascism)
        • Showed that the American form of gov’t was strong enough to protect its people
        • Prepared America for the struggle that was ahead and the struggles we still face today
    • MISCELLANEOUS CULTURE OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION 1920’s, Great Depression & New Deal
    • THE CHANGES FOR WOMEN
      • Frances Perkins becomes the 1 st female cabinet member
      • Eleanor Roosevelt becomes active in politics and was a symbol of American women
      • Moderate, although not great, change in amount of women working and wage increase
    • MOTION PICTURES AND THE RADIO
      • Both capture the imagination of the public
      • Comedies, musicals, love stories and gangster films were all popular
      • “ Gone With the Wind” (1939). “Wizard of Oz” (1939), “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” (1937)
      • Marx Brothers, Fred Astaire, Ginger Rodgers, Clark Gable
      • Presented all aspects of American life
    • RADIO
      • Time for the family to gather together
      • FDR’s “fireside chats”
      • Orson Wells and “War of the Worlds”
      • Comedian Bob Hope began on the radio
      • News coverage on radio became common (crashing of the Hindenburg in 1937)