R.A.P. (pg. 2 L) What is a cradle of civilization? How does your answer relate to Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamian Class Notes (pg 3 R) I. Mesopotamia A) Beginnings -4,000 B.C.E. – 3,000 B.C.E. - developed between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
- today Mesopotamia is modern day Iraq B) Southern Mesopotamia 1) Sumerians - short, stocky and black haired 2) Earliest known civilization - 1 st time people were able to control their environment
3) 1 st time people were able to control their environment How????? a) built levees(dams) and began to irrigate….this led to farming b) established a government to make laws in cities ex: “UR” – greatest civilization c) population grew - children could survive
C) Religion 1) Forces of nature were gods and alive 2) Over 3,000 gods and goddesses 3) At first, only male gods, later female gods were created 4) Believed humans came from the mud of the twin rivers
D) Goals of Sumerians 1) Live to please the gods 2) Only priests knew the will of gods a) ran schools b) rich kids could go to school, poor kids stayed home and farmed
c) schools were called, “Tablet Houses” d) learned cuneiform (writing) e) writing developed to keep track of business deals f) graduates became scribes
E) Women’s rights 1) Very few rights 2) Husband could: a) Sell wife b) Rent wife c) Rent/sell children d) Divorce wife by saying,” You are not my wife!”
F) Role of Children in society 1) Support their parents 2) Obey their older siblings
G) Priest- Kings 1) Gilgamesh a) More god than human b) Performed great acts of courage c) Tells of a great flood (Noah’s Ark)
2) Gave advice to assemblies (organized government) a) war broke out, assembly chose soldiers b) current leaders stay in charge c) kingship is hereditary
R.A.P. (pg. 4 L) What artifact do you think historians will say best illustrates an important achievement in American culture?
Mesopotamian Contributions (pg. 17 R) 1) First civilization 2) First to write down laws 3) Cuneiform – first form of writing 4) Wheel for transportation 5) Plow for farming 6) Sailboat – used wind power instead of muscle power
7) Calendar (12 months) based on moon phases – marked religious festivals and planting 8) number system based on 60 – 60 min. hour, 60 second minute, 360 degree circle 9) clock operated by water drops 10) Lever, pulley 11) Chisel and Saw