China Dynasty
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China Dynasty






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China Dynasty China Dynasty Presentation Transcript

  • China The ups and downs of the various Dynasties 589 to 1644 C.E.
  • The Sui Dynasty 589-618 C.E.
    • Yan Jian conquered the Chen Kingdom and unified China
    • He founded the Sui Dynasty, became emperor and changed his name to Wen Di.
    • Wen Di and his son Yang Di were harsh rulers
    • Forced peasants who were in debt to join in the army or work on public works projects
    • Wen Di was a Buddhist but he encouraged the practice of all three teaching, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.
    • The Sui are remembered for building the 600 mile Grand Canal that connect the Yanzi and Yellow rivers.
    • They also rebuilt the Great Wall of China
    • Due to the extensive public works and military conflict the Sui Dynasty controled large stretches of China for 29 years
  • The Tang Dynasty 618-907 C.E.
    • Li Shi Min captured the two major cities of the Sui Dynasty, Changan and Luoyang
    • He then made himself emperor and took on the name Dai Zong
    • The Tang ruled one of the geographically largest empires in Chinese history
    • They developed a government with various departments
    • Civil servant and artists followed Confucianism
    • Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism flourished. Later Buddhism was repressed because it was viewed as a foreign religion
    • Reduced the power of the upper class by creating the equal field system where the land was re-divided among the able men of the country. Peasants were able to gain wealth, power and influence
    • Scholars became the ruling elite
    • Because the Emperors had the direct control and allegiance of the army, along with the land reforms, the Tang were able to maintain power for 89 years.
  • The Song Dynasty 960-1279
    • After the collapse of the Tang dynasty and the years of civil war that followed, Tai Zu came to power in Kaifeng and established the Song Dynasty
    • The northern borders were constantly threatened by the Mongolians and the Manchurians. Finally a people called the Jurchen forced the Song family to relocate south to Hangzhou
    • The diet and products of the south became more important (this is when rice grew in importance)
    • The civil servants came from the south and were employed based on their merit (based upon exam scores and how well they did their jobs)
    • The Song introduced a new version of Buddhism called Chan. It would be called Zen in Japan
    • Because of the emphasis on the trade of tea, coal, porcelain and silk, and the taxes it created, the merchant class rose in importance
    • A new strain of rice was adopted
    • Printing was invented while copper, paper money, expensive art objects were created
  • The Yuan Dynasty 1260-1368
    • In 1279 Kulbai Kahn, grandson of Genghis Khan conquered the Song Dynasty
    • This established the only foreign rule of China
    • The Yuan kept the civil service system with it’s departments, but it employed Turks and Persians
    • They created a strict hierarchy:
        • .Mongols who lived tax free
        • .Non-Chinese civil servants
        • .Northern Chinese
        • Southern Chinese
    • Kublai Khan practiced Shamanism, yet the Chinese belief system was left alone
    • He also encouraged the establishment of Buddhist monasteries
    • Many Chinese suffered and died as a result of poor treatment and the destruction of farmland
    • The canals and roads were only maintained for a few years and then they deteriorated
  • The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    • The Chinese rose up against the Mongols when there power was waning.
    • Hong Wu was the peasant who led the revolt
    • The civil service exam was reintroduced and the Chinese once again served in the government
    • The emperors were very powerful
    • They were very involved in the government and often had a secret police force protecting their interests
    • They encouraged overseas exploration only to later revert to isolationism
    • Confucianism was re-born and many Chinese combined the practice of all three teachings
    • Canals, bridges, temples, roads, shrines, and protective walls were all rebuilt.
    • Civil war broke out due to over taxation and poor governmening