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Class presentation slides for Physical Science 50 (First quarter) Spring Semester 2009

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Uslides1

  1. 1. Physical Science The Universe Around Us How does it Work? What is it made of? How does it affect us?
  2. 2. Astronomy The Oldest Science navigation calendar systems agriculture
  3. 3. Babylon & Egypt Planetary motion North Celestial Pole
  4. 4. Aristotle Geocentrism Perfect circles Finite Natural motion
  5. 5. Ptolemy Retrograde motion epicycles
  6. 6. Retrograde motion
  7. 7. Copernicus Heliocentrism
  8. 8. Galileo His evidence for Copernicanism: Lunar valley shadows Sunspots Venus’ phases Jupiter’s moons
  9. 9. Lunar Shadows
  10. 10. Sunspots
  11. 11. Venus’ Phases
  12. 12. Jupiter’s Moons
  13. 13. Johannes Kepler Planetary orbits = Ellipses
  14. 14. Skywatching
  15. 15. The Reason for Seasons
  16. 16. Lunar phases
  17. 17. Lunar Orbit vs. Earth’s Orbit
  18. 18. Solar Eclipse
  19. 19. Solar Eclipse
  20. 20. Lunar Eclipse
  21. 21. Lunar Eclipse
  22. 22. Common Orbital Planes
  23. 23. Zodiac constellations
  24. 24. Planetary paths
  25. 25. The 7 day week English Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday French Vendredi dimanche Lundi Mardi Mercredi Jeudi samedi Spanish Domingo Lunes Martes Miercoles Jueves Viernes sabado Domenica Italian Luedi Martedi Mercoledi Giovedi Venerdi sabato Donnerstag German Sonntag Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Freitag Samstag Donderdag Dutch Zondag Maandag Dinsdag Woensdag Vrijdag Zaterdag
  26. 26. Ecliptic = Sun’s path
  27. 27. Sun’s Path
  28. 28. Celestial Sphere
  29. 29. Circumpolar Constellations
  30. 30. Constellations
  31. 31. Modern Constellations Ursa Major vs. “Big Dipper”
  32. 32. Legend of the Bear Hibernation?
  33. 33. The Solar System
  34. 34. Beginning of the Solar System
  35. 35. Origins of the solar system Solar nebula Frequent collisions Many fragments
  36. 36. The Sun Chief energy source (photosynthesis) Nearest star Mainly hydrogen & helium
  37. 37. Photosphere
  38. 38. Corona 1,000,000 K+ Highly ionized Gases
  39. 39. The Solar Wind
  40. 40. Aurora Borealis (northern lights)
  41. 41. Mercury Smallest (4880 km) 88 day year Synchronous orbit
  42. 42. Synchronous Rotation
  43. 43. Mercurian Magnetic Field
  44. 44. Messenger
  45. 45. Venus “sister” of Earth 243 days = year Atmosphere (100x Earth)
  46. 46. Venusian Atmosphere Greenhouse effect
  47. 47. “Backward” Rotation Previous Collision??
  48. 48. Mars Red planet (rust) 686 days = year Weak atmosphere (mainly CO2)
  49. 49. Martian Ice?
  50. 50. Martian Moons Phobos & Deimos
  51. 51. Jupiter 12 years = year 10 hours = day Volume = 1400 Earths Made of H, He
  52. 52. Great Red Spot 400+ year storm
  53. 53. Jupiter’s Interior No solid surface
  54. 54. Galilean Moons
  55. 55. Saturn 29 year cycle 10 hour day rings
  56. 56. Titan Largest moon Methane atmosphere and lakes Solid water on surface
  57. 57. Uranus First modern planet discovered 1781 84 year cycle
  58. 58. Another collision victim
  59. 59. Neptune Discovered mathematically (1846) 164 year cycle Great Dark Spot
  60. 60. Pluto  Jan 23, 1930 Jan 29, 1930 Tombaugh
  61. 61. Pluto’s orbit
  62. 62. Plutonian Moons Charon Nix Hydra
  63. 63. Kuiper Belt
  64. 64. Kuiper Belt objects
  65. 65. Oort Cloud
  66. 66. Comets
  67. 67. Meteors
  68. 68. Asteroid Belt Ceres (1801)
  69. 69. Bode’s Law (1768)  Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels “Let the distance from the Sun to Saturn be taken as 100, then Mercury is separated by 4 such parts  from the Sun. Venus is 4+3=7. The Earth 4+6=10.  Mars 4+12=16. Now comes a gap in this so orderly  progression. After Mars there follows a space of  4+24=28 parts, in which no planet has yet been seen.  Can one believe that the Founder of the universe  had left this space empty? Certainly not. From here  we come to the distance of Jupiter by 4+48=52 parts,  and finally to that of Saturn by 4+96=100 parts.” 
  70. 70. Johannes Kepler Planetary orbits = Ellipses
  71. 71. Bode’s Law Planet K Bode’s Actual Mercury 0 0.4 AU 0.39 AU Venus 1 0.7 0.72 Earth 2 1.0 1.00 Mars 4 1.6 1.52 8 2.8 2.77 Jupiter 16 5.2 5.2 Saturn 32 10 9.54
  72. 72. Asteroids Irregular shape Cratered small
  73. 73. Milky Way Galaxy
  74. 74. Celestial Distances Earth - Moon 3.84 x 105 km 1.5 x 108 km Earth-Sun 5.9 x 109 km Sun-Pluto
  75. 75. Nearest Star Proxima Centauri: 3.97 x 1013 Km
  76. 76. Light Year C = 3 x 108 m/s (3 x 108m/s) x (60 s/min) x (60 min/hr) x (24hr/d) x (365.25 d/yr) = 9.46 x 1015 m/yr = 9.46 x 1012km/yr
  77. 77. Galaxies Elliptical, spiral, irregular
  78. 78. Milky Way Galaxy
  79. 79. Stellar Characteristics Brightness (magnitude) Color (temperature)
  80. 80. Magnitude
  81. 81. Luminosity
  82. 82. Color
  83. 83. Star Sizes
  84. 84. Hertzsprung Russell diagram
  85. 85. Star Evolution
  86. 86. Star “Nursery” Dust + Gas + Energy
  87. 87. Protostar Development
  88. 88. Fusion 4 1H ->4He
  89. 89. Equilibrium
  90. 90. Brown Dwarf Failed Star?
  91. 91. Red Giant Triple Alpha process 3 He -> C
  92. 92. Planetary Nebula Residual “Smoke ring”
  93. 93. White Dwarf
  94. 94. Sun Sized Star
  95. 95. Star Evolution
  96. 96. Supergiant Star Betelgeuse
  97. 97. Supernova SN1987A 1054 1572 1604
  98. 98. Crab Nebula
  99. 99. Pulsar LGM project
  100. 100. Neutron Star
  101. 101. Black Holes
  102. 102. Evidence for Black holes X-ray source Spacetime distortion
  103. 103. Local Cluster of Galaxies
  104. 104. Red Shift
  105. 105. Hubble’s Law V=Hd
  106. 106. Steady State Model
  107. 107. Big Bang Theory
  108. 108. Evidence Red shift Hubble time (age) Cosmic Background radiation
  109. 109. Leftover Energy
  110. 110. The Future?
  111. 111. The Speed of Light C = 3 x 108 m/s
  112. 112. Relativity E = m c2 thus at c, E=m
  113. 113. Relavitity All motion is relative
  114. 114. Time Dilation Time is relative Twin paradox
  115. 115. Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction
  116. 116. Relativistic Mass
  117. 117. Relativistic Time
  118. 118. Gravity Effect

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