Histslides3

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Class presentation slides for the History of Science (third quarter) for Spring Semester 2009

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Histslides3

  1. 1. The Dark Ages
  2. 2. Charlemagne (742 - 814) Leader of the Franks  Unifier  Conversion to Christianity  Monastery schools 
  3. 3. Book of Kells Human copy  machines
  4. 4. Medieval Warm Period
  5. 5. Evidence Vikings and Vinland 
  6. 6. Population Boom
  7. 7. Agricultural Revolution Ox -> horse  2-field to 3-field  crop rotation New tools 
  8. 8. Need for more land Deforestation  Watermills  And windmills
  9. 9. The Crusades European expansion   Excess young lords
  10. 10. The Crusades - Legacy Stimulated interest  in exotic goods/information New military technology  Decline of feudalism 
  11. 11. Birth of European Universities  Population boom -> urban migration  Growth of guilds  Classic revival (obtained from Arab world)
  12. 12. Christian World View Aristotelian Christianity
  13. 13. Albertus Magnus (~1200 -1280) Science/religion  coexistence Bishop of  Regensburg Aristotelian 
  14. 14. Albertus Magnus Futurist or Occultist?  Astrology  Alchemy  “Box of Secrets” 
  15. 15. Roger Grosseteste (1168 - 1253)  Bishop of Lincoln  Translated Greek, Hebrew, Arabic ---> Latin  Milky Way  Universe - point source
  16. 16. Roger Bacon (1214 - 1294) Grosseteste student  Lens experiment:  telescope? Elixir = salvation? 
  17. 17. Roger Bacon Gunpowder  Ornithopter  Ships w/out rowers   Carriages w/out horses  Bridges w/out supports
  18. 18. Black Death 1346 - 1350  Seaports and  trade centers first
  19. 19. Yersinia Pestis
  20. 20. Legacy of the Black Death  Death art  Cemeteries & Pest houses  Quarantine  Latin->vernacular  Anti-Semitism  Laborers, women  Sheep
  21. 21. Renaissance in Italy
  22. 22. Why Italy? Growth of Cities  Flourishing Commerce,  Banking Merchant Class  Home of Classics 
  23. 23. Renaissance Architecture Brunelleschi’s Duomo  Michelangelo’s Campidoglio 
  24. 24. Gothic Architecture  Notre Dame (Paris)  Chartres Cathedral
  25. 25. Renaissance Architecture  Proportion  Realistic art  Harmony & Balance
  26. 26. Brunelleschi Dome of Santa Maria  del Fiore
  27. 27. Renaissance Art Divine Proportion  Luca Pacioli
  28. 28. Da Vinci Vitruvian Man  Realism in anatomy  Incorporation of  Divine Proportion
  29. 29. Renaissance Art  Titian  Attention to detail  Realistic portrayal of anatomy
  30. 30. Renaissance Art Use of perspective  Botticelli 
  31. 31. Da Vinci
  32. 32. Da Vinci Technology
  33. 33. Reformation South -> North worldly secular  Individualism  Questioning established order
  34. 34. Calendar Reform Julian calendar  (Julius Caesar 46 BC) Error in year length  = 11 minutes
  35. 35. Calendar Reform  Pope Gregory XIII  Gregorian calendar skipped from Oct 4 to Oct 15, 1582
  36. 36. Gregorian Calendar Adoption  1582: Catholic countries 1752: British isles 1917: Russia 1926: Turkey
  37. 37. Copernicus (1473 - 1543) Catholic cleric  Studied math,  canon law & m medicine
  38. 38. Failure of Ptolemaic system Moon’s size  should vary No symmetry  or order
  39. 39. Copernican Model Heliocentric  vs. geocentric De revolutionibus  orbium caelestium
  40. 40. The Scientific Revolution  Increased Travel  Universities  Translations  Printing Press  Chaos in Christendom
  41. 41. Hermeticism Hermes Trismegistus  Alchemy  Astrology 
  42. 42. Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) Discovered comet, Supernova 
  43. 43. Tychonic Model compromise 
  44. 44. Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Brahe’s assistant  Cast horoscopes  Pythagorean? 
  45. 45. Mysterium Cosmographicum (1596) Planetary orbits  fit within Platonic solids
  46. 46. Harmonices Mundi Kepler attempted  to link planetary orbits with musical progressions (Pythagorean?)
  47. 47. Kepler’s Laws Planetary orbits are ellipses 1) Equal areas in equal time 2) (period)2 = (distance)3 3)
  48. 48. Leonard & Thomas Digges “Perspective  Glasses” “ .. discovered Things farre off” Infinite Universe Popularized Copericanism
  49. 49. Giordano Bruno (1548 - 1600) Coperican  and Hermeticist Inquisition 
  50. 50. Hans Lippershey Patent 1608 
  51. 51. Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642) Improved upon Lippershey’s model  Looked to the skies 
  52. 52. Sunspots
  53. 53. Surface of the Moon
  54. 54. Milky Way & Nebulae
  55. 55. Jupiter’s Moons “Medicean  planets”
  56. 56. Venus’ phases
  57. 57. Venus’ phases
  58. 58. Galileo and Physical Science Pendulum  equal L -> same period
  59. 59. Free Fall t=1s t=2s t=3s
  60. 60. Projectiles Why did cannonballs fall to the ground? 
  61. 61. Galilean Inventions  Pendulum clock  Jovilabe
  62. 62. Galilean Inventions Thermoscope  pulley 
  63. 63. Dialogue Concerning Two World Systems Sagredo  Simplicio  Salviati  “Eppur si Muove” 
  64. 64. Medieval Medicine Bloodletting  Astrology  humors 
  65. 65. Paracelsus (1493 - 1554)  >> Celsus  Theophrastus Phillipus Aureolus Bombastus Von Hohenheim  Nature = Vital force
  66. 66. Paracelsus  Grosse Wundartzung  Different disease = different medicine  Treat with analogues, not opposites
  67. 67. Vesalius (1514 - 1564)  Andre Wesele Crabbe  Anatomist revised Galen  Fabric of the Human Body  Exhibitions
  68. 68. Anatomy of Dr. Tulp (Rembrandt)
  69. 69. Resurrection Men Used  Executed criminals OR Graverobbing
  70. 70. Students of Vesalius Gabriele Fallopi  Fabricius  Malpighi 
  71. 71. Harvey & Blood Circulation Heart as a pump  One way  systems
  72. 72. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
  73. 73. Microscopy
  74. 74. Robert Hooke (1635 - 1703) Micrographia  (1665) Compound  microscope
  75. 75. Micrographia
  76. 76. Hooke’s Fossils  Surveyor of London (Christopher Wren) “I think it will be evident that it  could not come from the Flood of Noah since the duration that which was but about two hundred natural days, or half an year, could not afford time enough for the production and perfection of so many and so great and full grown Shells . . . besides the quantity and thickness of the Beds of Sand with which they are many times found mixed, do argue that there must needs be a much longer time of the Seas residence above the same . . .”
  77. 77. Hooke’s Law  F = -kx = natural frequency  Balance spring clock
  78. 78. Robert Boyle (1627 - 1691) Nobleman  1st chemist?  Boyle’s Law  1 Volume ≈ pressure
  79. 79. Nature of Air Air pump (1660) 
  80. 80. Sceptical Chymist Attempt to apply scientific  method to alchemy
  81. 81. Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) “Novum Organon” New Atlantis Inductive vs. Deductive
  82. 82. René Descartes (1596- 1650) Cartesian coordinates  “Cogito ergo sum” 
  83. 83. Celestial vortices Vortex -> Gravity  3 types of elements:  luminous transparent opaque
  84. 84. Descartes & Leibniz Descartes Leibniz “extended bodies” “single substances” constantly changing “All the parts of every living body are full of other living beings”
  85. 85. Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727) “If I have seen  further it is only by standing on the shoulders of Giants” -letter to Robert  Hooke (1676)
  86. 86. The Wonder Year (1666)  Plague outbreak (1665)  Cambridge University closed
  87. 87. Light Spectrum Sunlight -> rainbow  spectrum Use of prism to  “split” light
  88. 88. Reflecting Telescope (1668 -71)
  89. 89. Alternative Designs Gregory  Cassegrain 
  90. 90. Comet of 1680  Nov 1680 toward the sun  By December, away  One comet or two?
  91. 91. Flamsteed and Halley  Court astronomer at Royal Observatory  Halley catalogued of Southern skies
  92. 92. Inverse Square Laws Christiaan Huygens (Wren, Hooke) 1  Force = (distance)2
  93. 93. Newton’s Laws of Motion 1) Inertia & Force  2) Force =  Mass x Acceleration 3) Equal & Opposite  Actions
  94. 94. Differential Calculus F=mxa  d(velocity) F=  dt “Fluxions” 
  95. 95. Leibniz “Infinitesimals” 1684   calculator
  96. 96. Newton’s Cannon
  97. 97. Gravity  Mutually attractive  G -- universal gravitational constant  Inverse square
  98. 98. Tides
  99. 99. Tidal Variations
  100. 100. Halley’s Comet  Recognized recurring cometary visits  44 BC, 531, 1106 1531, 1682  Predicted return 1758/9
  101. 101. Newton’s Chymistry  Mysterious symbols
  102. 102. Biblical Numerology  Calculated the date of the Apocalypse
  103. 103. Clockmaker God  Deism  Calendar reform  Need for timekeeping
  104. 104. Giovanni Cassini (1625 - 1712) Discovered Saturn’s  moons and ring division  Timekeeping with jovilabe
  105. 105. Ole Rømer (1644 - 1710)  Measured speed of light (225,000 km/s) by observing eclipse of Jupiter’s moon
  106. 106. Advances in Cartography  Mercator projection (1587)
  107. 107. Mercator Projection  Artificially enlarges land masses nearer to the poles Greenland vs Africa Antarctica?
  108. 108. The Problem of Longitude  Latitude: based on identifiable starting points: Equator North & South Pole
  109. 109. John Harrison  1714 £20,000 prize for: quot;for such person or persons as shall discover the Longitude.” Newton: “superior clock”
  110. 110. Harrison’s timepiece “H1”   By 1762, accurate to 5 seconds (H4)
  111. 111. Carl Linnaeus (1707 - 1778)  Swedish botanist  Extensive field work
  112. 112. Linnaeus’ catalogue
  113. 113. Hierarchical system
  114. 114. Where do Humans Belong?
  115. 115. Mythical animals
  116. 116. James Ussher (1581 - 1656)  Creation: 4004 BC
  117. 117. Anders Celsius (1701 -1744)  Centigrade “Swedish Thermometer”  Sea level
  118. 118. Georges Cuvier (1769 – 1832)  Classified fossils: meat eater vs. plant eater  Pterodactyl  Each rock layer: fossil era
  119. 119. Stratigraphy 100,000 vs. 4000 years
  120. 120. Catastrophism “All of these facts, consistent  among themselves, and not opposed by any report, seem to me to prove the existence of a world previous to ours, destroyed by some kind of catastrophe.” -- Cuvier
  121. 121. Jean-BaptisteLaMarck (1744 – 1829)  Biologist he further redefined animal classes  Environment produces change in animals  Life structured in an orderly manner “pouvoir de la vie”  No extinction: change in form
  122. 122. Uniformitarianism Gradual change  no abrupt crises Example:  Grand Canyon
  123. 123. James Hutton (1726 – 1797) “Theory of the  Earth with Proofs” -- 1795 Fossils on  mountaintops?
  124. 124. Oyster Club Joseph Black  David Hume  Adam Smith 
  125. 125. How Long does this Take? Age of the Earth?  1000’s? 100000’s? Millions?
  126. 126. Jean Fourier (1768 – 1830) Fourier transform  Napoleon advisor  Studied heat flow 
  127. 127. Cooling of the Earth 100 million years?
  128. 128. Comte de Buffon (Georges Louis LeClerc (1707 – 1788) Histoire Naturelle  Comet impacted  sun  Earth 50,000 years of  cooling
  129. 129. Legacies of the Scientific Revolution (re)birth of  science Career scientists  Societies and  publications
  130. 130. Political Revolutions American  French 
  131. 131. Societal Changes Rural -> Urban  Labor saving  devices Factories:  mechanization of textiles
  132. 132. Island of Coal Newton as  inspiration Coal plentiful 
  133. 133. Dangers of Coal Mining Cave – in  Floods  Air quality  Health effects 
  134. 134. Thomas Newcomen (1664 – 1729) Piston – driven  engine Steam produced by Burning cheap coal Wasted heat, fuel
  135. 135. James Watt (1736 – 1819) New design 1769  3x efficiency  Separate steam  condenser
  136. 136. Steam technology Transportation  locomotives steamships Trade 
  137. 137. Experimental Science Systematic  New instrument  and their applications Scientific Method 

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