Histslides2

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Class presentation slides for the History of Science (second quarter) for Spring Semester 2009

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Histslides2

  1. 1. The Golden Age of Greece  Marathon 490 BC  Peloponnesian War  Rise of Macedon
  2. 2. The Sophists Socrates and Reason
  3. 3. Plato (429 - 347 BC)  “Let none but geometers enter here”  The Republic  Real vs. Ideal changing/constant senses/soul -> Truth
  4. 4. Platonic bodies
  5. 5. Plato‟s Challenge  Explain the motion of the planetary bodies Heraclides - heliocentrism Earth rotates on axis
  6. 6. Eudoxus  Concentric spheres
  7. 7. Alexander the Great (356 - 323 BC)
  8. 8. Aristotle (384 - 322 BC)  Son of Nicomachus  Student of Plato  “Eudaimonia”
  9. 9. Aristotle  Homunculus “Man the seed, woman the incubator”  Preformationism vs. epigenesis
  10. 10. Embryology
  11. 11. Aristotle as Biologist  Categorized 500+ animals Blooded Non-blooded Live young egg bearing insects sea animals Also DUALIZERS (whales, bats, sponges)
  12. 12. Dissection  Dog shark
  13. 13. Aristotelian Motion  Celestial vs. Terrestrial  Matter has: Material Cause Shape Efficient Cause First Cause
  14. 14. Matter  Material Cause (wood)  Shape (carpentry)  Efficient Cause (builder)  First Cause (slumber)
  15. 15. Elements & Opposites  How things present to the senses  Interchangeable  Ether
  16. 16. Natural Motion  Things move according to their nature  Intrinsically at rest  Need a MOVER  Heavy things fall faster
  17. 17. Aristotelian Universe  Central spherical Earth  Circle = perfect shape  Stars = finite boundary
  18. 18. Crystal Spheres  55 spheres  buffers
  19. 19. Meterologica  Earthquakes  Tornadoes  Lightning  Milky Way
  20. 20. Legacy  Tradition of writing  Lyceum  Library
  21. 21. Greek Technology  Anacharses  Glaucus  Theodorus
  22. 22. Archimedes (287 - 212 BC)  Golden Crown  Heat Ray?  Lever  Water screw
  23. 23. Archimedes  Archimedes‟ principle displacement volume
  24. 24. Archimedes  “Give me a place to stand and I will move the Earth”
  25. 25. Water Screw  Buoyant force
  26. 26. Burning Mirror  Siege of Syracuse
  27. 27. Archimedean solids
  28. 28. Aristarchus (310 - 230 BC)  Sun centered solar system with a rotating, tilted Earth
  29. 29. Distance to the Sun
  30. 30. Size & Distance of the moon  Aristarchus: Moon = 1/3 Earth Distance = 40 x Earth‟s Diameter
  31. 31. Eratosthenes (276 - 195 BC)  Map of the world  Calculated the tilt of the Earth (11/83 of 180°)
  32. 32. Circumference of the Earth 7.1° 800 km 360° = x X = 40, 560 km = 25, 000 mi
  33. 33. Euclid (325 - 270 BC)  Geometry Squaring the circle
  34. 34. Golden Ratio  Phidias
  35. 35. Parthenon
  36. 36. Hipparchus (190 - 120 BC)  Star catalog Movement of equinoxes
  37. 37. Precession
  38. 38. Length of the Seasons
  39. 39. Ptolemy  Almagest (The Greatest Compilation)
  40. 40. Ptolemaic Model Deferents And epicycles
  41. 41. Rise of Rome  Greek colony  ~ 31 BC
  42. 42. Roman engineering  Aqueducts  Roads
  43. 43. Roman medicine  Celsus (25 BC - 50 AD) (Aulus Cornelius Celsus)  Physician or editor  Introduced terms: calor, dolor, rubor, tumor
  44. 44. Galen (129 - 200 AD)  Aristotelian & Hippocratic  Experimentalist (anatomy demos)  Equilibrium via bloodletting & therapy
  45. 45. Roman surgery  Bone hooks  Bloodletting cups  scalpels
  46. 46. Decline of Rome  Overextension  Crime/corruption  “barbarians”  East/West split
  47. 47. Rise of Islam  Muhammed (570 - 632)  Qu‟ran  Unified Arab tribes
  48. 48. The Age of Islam
  49. 49. Scientific Tradition in Islam  Decline of Rome/Byzantium Rise of Christianity  Military Success  Translation programs
  50. 50. Arabic schools  Caliph patronage  Many disciplines  Writing/publishing  “Seek learning”
  51. 51. Arithmetic  Arabic (Indian) numerals Unlimited with place values
  52. 52. Roman Numerals MCMLXXXVIII = 1988
  53. 53. Al-Kharizmi (~680 - 750)  Algorithm  Book of Calculations algebra = jabr “transformation”  Quadratic solutions ax2 + bx + c = 0
  54. 54. Omar Khayyam  Rubai‟yat
  55. 55. Omar Khayyam (1048 - 1122)  Cubic equations x3 + a = bx  Binomial expansion (1 + x)n =>
  56. 56. The Noblest Science  Tradition of observation  Establishing time of day muwaqqit  When is the new moon?  Navigation, Mecca
  57. 57. Navigation  Direction of Mecca
  58. 58. Astrolabe
  59. 59. Astrolabe
  60. 60. Prayer Times  Sunset  Late evening  Dawn  Midday  Late afternoon „Ilm al-miqat
  61. 61. Islamic Calendar  Starts Sept 622 AD  Lunar  Alternating 30/29d  Leap years: 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29 in 32 years
  62. 62. Al-Tusi (1201- 1274)  Tusi couple  Earth‟s Rotation  Comets
  63. 63. Alchemy  Al Razi (Rhazes) (850 - 925)  Experimentation  New classification of Elements
  64. 64. Elements  Stones  Vitriols  Borax  Salts  Al-qili = Alkali  “Secret of Secrets”
  65. 65. Al iksir  Elixir  Philosopher‟s stone
  66. 66. Jabir (721 - 815)  “Geber”  Spirits, Metals, Powders & Stones
  67. 67. Al Biruni (973 - 1048)  “Book of Drugs”  Translated Indian works
  68. 68. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (981- 1037)  The Canon  Psychologist?  Disease distribution  TB, Smallpox
  69. 69. Persian Galen  Pharmacy  760 drugs
  70. 70. Pharmacopia
  71. 71. Islamic hospitals
  72. 72. The Central Kingdom
  73. 73. Dynasties of China Shang 1600 - 1066 BC Han 206 BC - 220 AD Tang 618 - 907 AD Sung 960 - 1279 Ming 1368 - 1636 Qing 1636 - 1911
  74. 74. Geographical Advantages  Head Start  Isolation  Climate  East-west rivers
  75. 75. Medicine  Blood circulation  Ch‟I  Heart as Pump  Circadian rhythm
  76. 76. Diagnosis and Treatment  Deficiency diseases scurvy, beriberi  Diabetes  Goiter
  77. 77. Variolation  Szechwan province  “Chung mao”
  78. 78. Tradition of Herbal Medicine  Chao Yung-Fung “Golden remedies”  Mu Piao
  79. 79. Chinese Astronomy  Eclipse prediction  Sunspots?
  80. 80. 1054 Supernova  “Guest star”
  81. 81. Cartography  Surveying  Sailing charts  compass
  82. 82. Circumnavigation?  Zheng He (1371 - 1433) Muslim Admiral of Chinese Navy
  83. 83. Zheng He expeditions  World Map?
  84. 84. Evidence?  Pate folklore
  85. 85. Did Zheng He Discover America?
  86. 86. What happened to the Navy?  Little competition  Less incentive  Political power struggle  Canal building infrastructure
  87. 87. Technology in China  Paper/printing  Silk  Guns/gunpowder  porcelain
  88. 88. Paper  Mulberry bark -> pulp  ~100 AD  Wrapping paper
  89. 89. Printing  Wood blocks then metal/ceramic  Pi Sheng moveable type
  90. 90. Printed Books  First book 868 AD Diamond Sutra  Gutenberg 1453 AD
  91. 91. Paper Money  1380 AD  “Precious Note of Great Ming”
  92. 92. Playing Cards  ~1000 AD  “stimulate thinking, convenient, without meditation”  Gambling
  93. 93. Silk  Bombyx Mori  Boil cocoon  Single Thread 300 - 900 m long
  94. 94. Uses of Silk
  95. 95. Chinese Weapons  “Gung pao”  1044: Wu Ching Tsung Yao  Saltpeter/C/sulfur
  96. 96. Shock & Awe  Added metals for color, sound effects
  97. 97. Firearrows & Cannons  Firearrows dipped in flammables with poison on tips  Cannon 1368  Smoke screen
  98. 98. Ceramics  Still known as “china”  Kaolin (white clay) +  Petuntse (white brick)
  99. 99. Seladon  Sung dynasty 960 - 1279 Stoneware with colored glazes
  100. 100. Porcelain (tz‟u)  Whiteness smoothness nonporous hardness translucent
  101. 101. Legacies  Silk Road  Spice Trade  Perfume/incense
  102. 102. The Science of India  Central Location  Tradition of outside influence of and tolerance for different schools of thought  Shintoism, Buddhism, Jainism  Caste system
  103. 103. Indian Astronomy  Surya Siddhanta ~ 600 AD  Imported Greek texts
  104. 104. Brahmagupta (598 - 668)  Sun = star  Spherical moving Earth  Gravity? “Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow”
  105. 105. Timekeeping  Hindu: Lunar day (tithi) 12 months of 30 tithi 360 day year
  106. 106. 27 wives of Moon  Nakshatras 27 n x 4 phases = 108  Moment = 1/30 day 30 m x 360 d = 10,800
  107. 107. Great Year  360 d x 12,000 divine years = 4,320,000 COSMIC CYCLE
  108. 108. Precession
  109. 109. Indian Medicine  Ayurveda “Science and Wisdom of life” Dynamic Balance
  110. 110. Indian Mathematics  “Arabic” numerals  Sunya
  111. 111. Technology  Textiles/weaving  Weapons  Shipbuilding
  112. 112. Southeast Asian climate  Monsoon civilizations
  113. 113. Khmer empire  800 - 1431  Highly centralized  Angkor
  114. 114. Angkor Wat  Suryavarman II (1130)  Hindu large stone monument  Rediscovered 1866
  115. 115. Mount Meru
  116. 116. Angkor Wat  Cardinal directions
  117. 117. Angkor Wat  “Day of the Gods”
  118. 118. Why was it Abandoned?  1430 - 1445  Rise of Thai and Vietnamese societies

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