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  • 1. Discovery of Fire .
  • 2. Discovery of Fire
    • Night -> Day
    • Warmth
    • Safety
    • Tool Making
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. History of Energy Sources 11/25/09
  • 4. Energy Use
  • 5. How is Energy Measured?
    • Joule
    • Calorie
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Energy Use
  • 7. Wood as Energy Source
    • Conflict with Building Needs
    11/25/09
  • 8. Wood as Energy Source
    • Deforestation
    11/25/09 . 1650 1850 1926
  • 9. Wood as Energy Source
    • Smog
    11/25/09 .
  • 10. Biomass
    • Growing plant matter for energy use
    • RENEWABLE
    • Usually scraps,
    • waste
    • Reduces fire danger
  • 11. Plant oils
    • Sunflower
    • Nut oils
    • Jatropha
    • pongamia
  • 12. Jatropha . Found in Central America
  • 13. Kelp farms Hardy High energy Content Grows quickly
  • 14. Ethanol from Plants
    • Fermentation
    • Brazil sugar cane
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Conflict with Food Production
  • 16. The Pits
    • gocpc.com
    • Food Waste
  • 17. California
    • Burns 5 million tons -> electricity (#1 in US)
    • (55 million wasted)
  • 18. Fossil Fuels
    • Coal
    • Petroleum
    • Natural Gas
  • 19. Coal .
  • 20. Coal Mining .
  • 21. Dirty Coal .
  • 22. Coal Formation 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 23.
    • Peat
    • Lignite
    • Bituminous
    • Anthracite
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved. Increasing Carbon content, increasing Energy
  • 24. Coal Deposits 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. US Coal
  • 26. Mining Types 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. Mountaintop Removal
  • 28. Coal Combustion
  • 29. Sulfur, Nitrogen impurities 11/25/09
  • 30. SOx and NOx 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. Petroleum Formation 11/25/09 .
  • 32. Petroleum Reserves
  • 33. US Petroleum Imports
  • 34. The Future??
    • Depletion Rates
    .
  • 35. Production of Greenhouse Gas
    • Coal C + O 2 ----> CO 2
    • Petroleum C 8 H 18 + O 2 -----> CO 2 + H 2 O
    • Natural Gas CH 4 + O 2 ------> CO 2 + H 2 O
  • 36. Links with Climate Change
  • 37. Fossil Fuel Use
    • • Not renewable/sustainable
    • • Polluting, greenhouse gas
    • • Political vulnerability
    • • Oil spills, mining disasters
  • 38. CO 2 Removal
    • Reforestation
  • 39. CO 2 Sequestration
  • 40. CO 2 Consumption
  • 41. Fossil Fuel Use 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. Crude Oil Prices 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. California Prices
    • Distance from Gulf of Mexico
    • Few refineries
    • Unique formulation
    11/25/09
  • 44. Mileage 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. The Future
    • 200 mpg?
    11/25/09
  • 46. Alternatives to Fossil Fuels
    • Ethanol
    • Oil Shale
    • Tar Sands
    • Hydrogen
    .
  • 47. Ethanol from Plants
    • Fermentation
    • Brazil sugar cane
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. Conflict with Food Production
  • 49. Ethanol Production 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. Oil Shale
    • Kerogen
    11/25/09
  • 51. Oil Shale 11/25/09
  • 52. US reserves 11/25/09
  • 53. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
    • H 2 + O 2 -----> H 2 O
    11/25/09
  • 54. Fuel Cell Vehicles 11/25/09
  • 55. Hydrogen Stations 11/25/09
  • 56. Challenger (1986)
    • flammability
    11/25/09
  • 57. Alternatives to Fossil Fuels
    • Nuclear Fission, Fusion
    • •Solar
    • •Wind
    • •Hydroelectric
    • •Geothermal
    • •Tidal
    11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.