Esa Unit4

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Esa Unit4

  1. 1. Discovery of Fire .
  2. 2. Discovery of Fire <ul><li>Night -> Day </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Making </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. History of Energy Sources 11/25/09
  4. 4. Energy Use
  5. 5. How is Energy Measured? <ul><li>Joule </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Energy Use
  7. 7. Wood as Energy Source <ul><li>Conflict with Building Needs </li></ul>11/25/09
  8. 8. Wood as Energy Source <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul>11/25/09 . 1650 1850 1926
  9. 9. Wood as Energy Source <ul><li>Smog </li></ul>11/25/09 .
  10. 10. Biomass <ul><li>Growing plant matter for energy use </li></ul><ul><li>RENEWABLE </li></ul><ul><li>Usually scraps, </li></ul><ul><li>waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces fire danger </li></ul>
  11. 11. Plant oils <ul><li>Sunflower </li></ul><ul><li>Nut oils </li></ul><ul><li>Jatropha </li></ul><ul><li>pongamia </li></ul>
  12. 12. Jatropha . Found in Central America
  13. 13. Kelp farms Hardy High energy Content Grows quickly
  14. 14. Ethanol from Plants <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil sugar cane </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Conflict with Food Production
  16. 16. The Pits <ul><li>gocpc.com </li></ul><ul><li>Food Waste </li></ul>
  17. 17. California <ul><li>Burns 5 million tons -> electricity (#1 in US) </li></ul><ul><li>(55 million wasted) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas </li></ul>
  19. 19. Coal .
  20. 20. Coal Mining .
  21. 21. Dirty Coal .
  22. 22. Coal Formation 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. <ul><li>Peat </li></ul><ul><li>Lignite </li></ul><ul><li>Bituminous </li></ul><ul><li>Anthracite </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved. Increasing Carbon content, increasing Energy
  24. 24. Coal Deposits 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. US Coal
  26. 26. Mining Types 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Mountaintop Removal
  28. 28. Coal Combustion
  29. 29. Sulfur, Nitrogen impurities 11/25/09
  30. 30. SOx and NOx 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Petroleum Formation 11/25/09 .
  32. 32. Petroleum Reserves
  33. 33. US Petroleum Imports
  34. 34. The Future?? <ul><li>Depletion Rates </li></ul>.
  35. 35. Production of Greenhouse Gas <ul><li>Coal C + O 2 ----> CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum C 8 H 18 + O 2 -----> CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas CH 4 + O 2 ------> CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul>
  36. 36. Links with Climate Change
  37. 37. Fossil Fuel Use <ul><li>• Not renewable/sustainable </li></ul><ul><li>• Polluting, greenhouse gas </li></ul><ul><li>• Political vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>• Oil spills, mining disasters </li></ul>
  38. 38. CO 2 Removal <ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul>
  39. 39. CO 2 Sequestration
  40. 40. CO 2 Consumption
  41. 41. Fossil Fuel Use 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  42. 42. Crude Oil Prices 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  43. 43. California Prices <ul><li>Distance from Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Few refineries </li></ul><ul><li>Unique formulation </li></ul>11/25/09
  44. 44. Mileage 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  45. 45. The Future <ul><li>200 mpg? </li></ul>11/25/09
  46. 46. Alternatives to Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Shale </li></ul><ul><li>Tar Sands </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul>.
  47. 47. Ethanol from Plants <ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil sugar cane </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  48. 48. Conflict with Food Production
  49. 49. Ethanol Production 11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.
  50. 50. Oil Shale <ul><li>Kerogen </li></ul>11/25/09
  51. 51. Oil Shale 11/25/09
  52. 52. US reserves 11/25/09
  53. 53. Hydrogen Fuel Cells <ul><li>H 2 + O 2 -----> H 2 O </li></ul>11/25/09
  54. 54. Fuel Cell Vehicles 11/25/09
  55. 55. Hydrogen Stations 11/25/09
  56. 56. Challenger (1986) <ul><li>flammability </li></ul>11/25/09
  57. 57. Alternatives to Fossil Fuels <ul><li>Nuclear Fission, Fusion </li></ul><ul><li>•Solar </li></ul><ul><li>•Wind </li></ul><ul><li>•Hydroelectric </li></ul><ul><li>•Geothermal </li></ul><ul><li>•Tidal </li></ul>11/25/09 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com; All Rights Reserved.

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