The Restless Earth
Why are some locations
vulnerable?
Continental Drift
 Alfred Wegener
1880 - 1930


   Meteorologist


    1915 “The Origin of Continents and Oceans”

Pangaea
Earth’s interior
Earth’s interior
Plate tectonics
Evidence:

Mesosaurus fossils

Glossopteris ferns

“puzzle pieces”

Glacial debris
Mesosaurus & Glossopteris
Gemstones
Jigsaw Puzzle pieces
Sea Floor magnetization
Plate tectonics
Tectonic Plate Motion
Plate boundaries
    Divergent




    Convergent




    Lateral Transform

Divergent plates
    Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Convergent boundary
   Nazca/S. American
    plates


   Himalayas




   Orogeny
Lateral Transform
    San Andreas

Fault Rupture
    1906



    Bolinas

Seismic Waves
    P waves

       faster
       move
       through
       land &
       water


    S waves

    do not...
Seismic waves
Seismograph
Triangulation
    3 locations



    Measure arrival times

    of P and S waves

    P: 6 - 6.7 km/s

    S: 3 - 4 km/s
Triangulating epicenters
Epicenter
Richter scale
    1935 Charles Richter

       (Cal Tech)
Richter Scale
    Logarithmic

    scale

  7.2 quake has

  amplitude
  10x greater than
  6.2
30x energy released
Richter values
Mercalli scale
Tsunamis
    Not tidal waves



    High velocity



    silent

December 26, 2004
    9.2 earthquake




    250,000 deaths

December 26, 2004
Predicting Earthquakes
    May 12, 2008

Ancient Earthquakes
    Jericho





    Red Sea

Decade of Earthquakes
    London



    Feb 8, 1750

    March 6, 1750
Lisbon
    Nov 1 1755



    All Saints Day



    tsunami

Rev. Charles Davy


    “Every parish

    church, convent, nunnery, palace, and
    public edifice, with an infinite nu...
New Madrid, MO 1811
San Francisco 1906
SF Earthquake 1906
   April 18, 1906
    5:12 am

   7.8 - 8.2

   42 seconds
    of shaking
Bay Area quakes
   1836 7.0

   1838 7.0

   1858 6.4

   1861 6.1

   1865 6.6

   1868 6.9
San Francisco 1905
    Dennis Sullivan



    1851 “Great Fire”



    1900 City Hall

April 18, 1906
    Caruso @ Palace Hotel

Fire
   Ruptured gas lines

   74 hours

   490 blocks
    damaged

   $500 million
Aftermath
    40,000+

    Homeless

    Chinatown



    500 - 3000 deaths

1906 - 1989
Loma Prieta 1989
   Oct 17, 1989
    5:04 pm



   7.2


   15 - 20 seconds
1989
    Battle of the Bay



    Game 3

Bay Bridge
Cypress Street Viaduct
SF Marina
Liquefaction
Santa Cruz




    Garden Mall

Loma Prieta 1989
    67 deaths,

    3800 injured

    12,000 homeless



    $6 Billion

Benefits?
    Stopped Hayward

    creep

    Raised mountains




    retrofitting

The Next Quake
    70% probability

    in the next 20-30
    years
Northridge 1994
    Jan 17, 1994

    4:30 am

    61 deaths,

    9,000 injured

    $20 Billion

Palm Desert
    Oct 16, 1999




    6.9 magnitude

Seattle 2001
    Feb 28, 2001





    6.8 magnitude

Pacific Northwest
    Potential?




    tsunami

Plate tectonics
Vulcanism
Hot spots
Hawaiian Islands
Ring of Fire
Magma Pressure
Volcanic Gases




    VOG

    (volcanic smog)
Benefits?
    Fertile soil





    Land creation

Geothermal Energy
Extinct vs. Dormant vs. Active
    Extinct

    (Devil’s Tower)

    Dormant

    (Mt. Fuji)

    Active

    (Kilauea)
Iceland
Historic Eruptions
    Toba 74,000 yrs ago

Caldera
    MT. Mazama



Aka Crater Lake
Santorini
    1628 BC




    Atlantis?

Yellowstone
Krakatoa
    August 27, 1883

Krakatoa
    Localized tsunami Sumatra/Java

Mt. Pelee
    Martinique, May 1902

    nuee ardente
    (pyroclastic flow)
Mt St Helens
    May 1980




    $3 Billion damage

Mt St Helens
    Lahar





    Infrastructure

    damage
Cascade Volcanoes
Predicting Eruptions
    Earthquakes



    Ground temperatures



    Chouet

Silent Killers 1986
    Lake Nyos

    Cameroon
El Chichon 1982
Mt. Pinatubo 1991
Mt Pinatubo
Mt. Tambora 1815
“The Year without a Summer”
   1816

    “Darkness” (Lord Byron)


    “I had a dream, which was not all a
    dream.
  ...
Franklin 1783-4
    Laki, Iceland


    Asama, Japan
1816

     Jefferson’s Journal
 
Volcanoes and Climate
    Volume of debris




    Height of Column




    Gases emitted

Volumes of Eruption Debris
    Volcanic Explosivity Index

    (VEI)
Eruption     Year   VEI   Casualties
Nevado del   19...
Climate effects
Earth’s climate
    Habitable zone



    Sufficient Gravity



    Water

Early Earth

 3 Billion years ago
     initially H2& He

 Nitrogen (N2),
  Carbon dioxide(CO2)
  from volcanoes
Photosynthesis
 CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
Earth’s atmosphere
 N2 78%


 O2 20.9%


 Ar 0.93 %


 CO2 0.038%
Carbon Dioxide levels
Global Temperatures
Historic Climate Eras
Medieval Warm Period
   Population Boom

   Viking Travel

   England exported
    wine

   Steppe Drought
The Little Ice Age
   Grain production

   Ergot Blight

   Plague

   Patagonian
    icefields
Climate Cycles




   Ice Ages and Interglacials
Ice Age - Glacial Maximum
Tree Rings - Dendrochronology
Assessing Historic Climates
    Glacial Ice Cores

Glacial Ice Cores

   Air composition

   Volcanic ash
    pollen

   Oxygen isotope
    distribution
Oxygen Isotopes -16O, 18O
Isotope data
Causes of Climate Cycles
    Orbital variation




    Tilt change




    Solar flux

Orbital Variation
 100,000 year cycle
Obliquity of the Earth’s Axis
    Tilt = 23.5o

Changes in the Earth’s Tilt
    41,000 year cycle




    Greater tilt: Interglacial




    Less tilt: Glaciation

Precession
    26,000 year cycle

Solar Forcing
    Changes in Flux

Sunspots
Maunder Minimum
Comparison
Cosmic Rays
Cloud Cover
Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse Gases
Venus

  800 K temp

  90x atmosphere

  96% CO2
Global Warming
   Glacial Melting

   Permafrost thaw

   Increased evaporation

   Coral reef bleaching

   Seasonal...
Glacial Melting
Polar Ice Caps
Greenland
Antarctic Ice
Sea Level Rising
Coastlines Affected
One to Five meter rise
Since the last Glacial Maximum
Consequences
San Francisco
Increased Evaporation Rates

Severe Storms


Coastal Erosion


Fires
Tropical Storm Formation
2005
    Katrina

    Rita
    Wilma
Coastal Erosion
2005 Coastal Erosion

Hurricane Rita
Saltwater Intrusion
Ocean Heat Penetration
El Niño
El Niño 1998
El Niño Frequency
Permafrost Thaw
Coral Reef Bleaching
Wildlife Habitats
Already Extinct
Expanded Pest Ranges
Expanded Pest Populations
Ocean Conveyor Belt
Salinity Decrease
Day After Tomorrow?
    Abrupt Climate

    change
Climate Flip Flop
    Positive

    feedback
Abrupt Climate Change
Younger Dryas
   12,800 - 11,400 yo

   Thermohaline
    reversal?


   Agriculture?
The New Ice Age
The New Interglacial
The New Interglacial Climate
Locations Affected
What is affected?
   Agriculture

   Transportation

   Population distribution

   Energy needs
Oceanic Overturning
Carbon Content
Carbon Capture & Storage
Marine Sequestration
Photosynthesis
 CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
Reforestation
Chemical Conversion
   Carbon dioxide
    ---->
    formic acid

   Preservative
   Perfume
   Scale removal
   Fuel ...
CO2 to Fuel
    Using

    gallium
    phosphide
CO2 absorption
    Peridotite

    (Oman)
CO2 Consumption by Algae
    GreenFuel Technologies

Lower Emissions
Carbon - Free?
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
Fuel Cell Hybrids
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ERMslides3

  1. 1. The Restless Earth
  2. 2. Why are some locations vulnerable?
  3. 3. Continental Drift  Alfred Wegener 1880 - 1930  Meteorologist 1915 “The Origin of Continents and Oceans” 
  4. 4. Pangaea
  5. 5. Earth’s interior
  6. 6. Earth’s interior
  7. 7. Plate tectonics Evidence: Mesosaurus fossils Glossopteris ferns “puzzle pieces” Glacial debris
  8. 8. Mesosaurus & Glossopteris
  9. 9. Gemstones
  10. 10. Jigsaw Puzzle pieces
  11. 11. Sea Floor magnetization
  12. 12. Plate tectonics
  13. 13. Tectonic Plate Motion
  14. 14. Plate boundaries Divergent  Convergent  Lateral Transform 
  15. 15. Divergent plates Mid-Atlantic Ridge 
  16. 16. Convergent boundary  Nazca/S. American plates  Himalayas  Orogeny
  17. 17. Lateral Transform San Andreas 
  18. 18. Fault Rupture 1906  Bolinas 
  19. 19. Seismic Waves P waves  faster move through land & water S waves  do not pass through liquids
  20. 20. Seismic waves
  21. 21. Seismograph
  22. 22. Triangulation 3 locations  Measure arrival times  of P and S waves P: 6 - 6.7 km/s S: 3 - 4 km/s
  23. 23. Triangulating epicenters
  24. 24. Epicenter
  25. 25. Richter scale 1935 Charles Richter  (Cal Tech)
  26. 26. Richter Scale Logarithmic  scale 7.2 quake has  amplitude 10x greater than 6.2 30x energy released
  27. 27. Richter values
  28. 28. Mercalli scale
  29. 29. Tsunamis Not tidal waves  High velocity  silent 
  30. 30. December 26, 2004 9.2 earthquake  250,000 deaths 
  31. 31. December 26, 2004
  32. 32. Predicting Earthquakes May 12, 2008 
  33. 33. Ancient Earthquakes Jericho  Red Sea 
  34. 34. Decade of Earthquakes London  Feb 8, 1750 March 6, 1750
  35. 35. Lisbon Nov 1 1755  All Saints Day  tsunami 
  36. 36. Rev. Charles Davy  “Every parish  church, convent, nunnery, palace, and public edifice, with an infinite number of private houses, were either thrown down or so miserably shattered that it was rendered dangerous to pass by them. The whole number of persons that perished, including those who were burnt or afterwards crushed to death whilst digging in the ruins, is supposed, on the lowest calculation, to amount to more than sixty thousand;”
  37. 37. New Madrid, MO 1811
  38. 38. San Francisco 1906
  39. 39. SF Earthquake 1906  April 18, 1906 5:12 am  7.8 - 8.2  42 seconds of shaking
  40. 40. Bay Area quakes  1836 7.0  1838 7.0  1858 6.4  1861 6.1  1865 6.6  1868 6.9
  41. 41. San Francisco 1905 Dennis Sullivan  1851 “Great Fire”  1900 City Hall 
  42. 42. April 18, 1906 Caruso @ Palace Hotel 
  43. 43. Fire  Ruptured gas lines  74 hours  490 blocks damaged  $500 million
  44. 44. Aftermath 40,000+  Homeless Chinatown  500 - 3000 deaths 
  45. 45. 1906 - 1989
  46. 46. Loma Prieta 1989  Oct 17, 1989 5:04 pm  7.2  15 - 20 seconds
  47. 47. 1989 Battle of the Bay  Game 3 
  48. 48. Bay Bridge
  49. 49. Cypress Street Viaduct
  50. 50. SF Marina
  51. 51. Liquefaction
  52. 52. Santa Cruz Garden Mall 
  53. 53. Loma Prieta 1989 67 deaths,  3800 injured 12,000 homeless  $6 Billion 
  54. 54. Benefits? Stopped Hayward  creep Raised mountains  retrofitting 
  55. 55. The Next Quake 70% probability  in the next 20-30 years
  56. 56. Northridge 1994 Jan 17, 1994  4:30 am 61 deaths,  9,000 injured $20 Billion 
  57. 57. Palm Desert Oct 16, 1999  6.9 magnitude 
  58. 58. Seattle 2001 Feb 28, 2001  6.8 magnitude 
  59. 59. Pacific Northwest Potential?  tsunami 
  60. 60. Plate tectonics
  61. 61. Vulcanism
  62. 62. Hot spots
  63. 63. Hawaiian Islands
  64. 64. Ring of Fire
  65. 65. Magma Pressure
  66. 66. Volcanic Gases VOG  (volcanic smog)
  67. 67. Benefits? Fertile soil  Land creation 
  68. 68. Geothermal Energy
  69. 69. Extinct vs. Dormant vs. Active Extinct  (Devil’s Tower) Dormant  (Mt. Fuji) Active  (Kilauea)
  70. 70. Iceland
  71. 71. Historic Eruptions Toba 74,000 yrs ago 
  72. 72. Caldera MT. Mazama  Aka Crater Lake
  73. 73. Santorini 1628 BC  Atlantis? 
  74. 74. Yellowstone
  75. 75. Krakatoa August 27, 1883 
  76. 76. Krakatoa Localized tsunami Sumatra/Java 
  77. 77. Mt. Pelee Martinique, May 1902  nuee ardente (pyroclastic flow)
  78. 78. Mt St Helens May 1980  $3 Billion damage 
  79. 79. Mt St Helens Lahar  Infrastructure  damage
  80. 80. Cascade Volcanoes
  81. 81. Predicting Eruptions Earthquakes  Ground temperatures  Chouet 
  82. 82. Silent Killers 1986 Lake Nyos  Cameroon
  83. 83. El Chichon 1982
  84. 84. Mt. Pinatubo 1991
  85. 85. Mt Pinatubo
  86. 86. Mt. Tambora 1815
  87. 87. “The Year without a Summer”  1816 “Darkness” (Lord Byron)  “I had a dream, which was not all a dream. The bright sun was extinguish'd, and the stars Did wander darkling in the eternal space, Rayless, and pathless, and the icy earth Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air; Morn came and went--and came, and brought no day”
  88. 88. Franklin 1783-4 Laki, Iceland  Asama, Japan
  89. 89. 1816 Jefferson’s Journal 
  90. 90. Volcanoes and Climate Volume of debris  Height of Column  Gases emitted 
  91. 91. Volumes of Eruption Debris Volcanic Explosivity Index  (VEI) Eruption Year VEI Casualties Nevado del 1985 3 25,000 Ruiz Mt. Pelee 1902 4 30,000 Krakatau 1883 6 36,000 Tambora 1815 7 92,000 Unzen 1792 3 15,000 Laki 1783 4 9,000 Kelut 1586 4 10,000
  92. 92. Climate effects
  93. 93. Earth’s climate Habitable zone  Sufficient Gravity  Water 
  94. 94. Early Earth 3 Billion years ago initially H2& He Nitrogen (N2), Carbon dioxide(CO2) from volcanoes
  95. 95. Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
  96. 96. Earth’s atmosphere N2 78% O2 20.9% Ar 0.93 % CO2 0.038%
  97. 97. Carbon Dioxide levels
  98. 98. Global Temperatures
  99. 99. Historic Climate Eras
  100. 100. Medieval Warm Period  Population Boom  Viking Travel  England exported wine  Steppe Drought
  101. 101. The Little Ice Age  Grain production  Ergot Blight  Plague  Patagonian icefields
  102. 102. Climate Cycles  Ice Ages and Interglacials
  103. 103. Ice Age - Glacial Maximum
  104. 104. Tree Rings - Dendrochronology
  105. 105. Assessing Historic Climates Glacial Ice Cores 
  106. 106. Glacial Ice Cores  Air composition  Volcanic ash pollen  Oxygen isotope distribution
  107. 107. Oxygen Isotopes -16O, 18O
  108. 108. Isotope data
  109. 109. Causes of Climate Cycles Orbital variation  Tilt change  Solar flux 
  110. 110. Orbital Variation 100,000 year cycle
  111. 111. Obliquity of the Earth’s Axis Tilt = 23.5o 
  112. 112. Changes in the Earth’s Tilt 41,000 year cycle  Greater tilt: Interglacial  Less tilt: Glaciation 
  113. 113. Precession 26,000 year cycle 
  114. 114. Solar Forcing Changes in Flux 
  115. 115. Sunspots
  116. 116. Maunder Minimum
  117. 117. Comparison
  118. 118. Cosmic Rays
  119. 119. Cloud Cover
  120. 120. Greenhouse gases
  121. 121. Greenhouse Gases
  122. 122. Greenhouse Gases
  123. 123. Greenhouse Gases
  124. 124. Venus 800 K temp 90x atmosphere 96% CO2
  125. 125. Global Warming  Glacial Melting  Permafrost thaw  Increased evaporation  Coral reef bleaching  Seasonal change
  126. 126. Glacial Melting
  127. 127. Polar Ice Caps
  128. 128. Greenland
  129. 129. Antarctic Ice
  130. 130. Sea Level Rising
  131. 131. Coastlines Affected
  132. 132. One to Five meter rise
  133. 133. Since the last Glacial Maximum
  134. 134. Consequences
  135. 135. San Francisco
  136. 136. Increased Evaporation Rates Severe Storms Coastal Erosion Fires
  137. 137. Tropical Storm Formation
  138. 138. 2005 Katrina  Rita Wilma
  139. 139. Coastal Erosion
  140. 140. 2005 Coastal Erosion Hurricane Rita
  141. 141. Saltwater Intrusion
  142. 142. Ocean Heat Penetration
  143. 143. El Niño
  144. 144. El Niño 1998
  145. 145. El Niño Frequency
  146. 146. Permafrost Thaw
  147. 147. Coral Reef Bleaching
  148. 148. Wildlife Habitats
  149. 149. Already Extinct
  150. 150. Expanded Pest Ranges
  151. 151. Expanded Pest Populations
  152. 152. Ocean Conveyor Belt
  153. 153. Salinity Decrease
  154. 154. Day After Tomorrow? Abrupt Climate  change
  155. 155. Climate Flip Flop Positive  feedback
  156. 156. Abrupt Climate Change
  157. 157. Younger Dryas  12,800 - 11,400 yo  Thermohaline reversal?  Agriculture?
  158. 158. The New Ice Age
  159. 159. The New Interglacial
  160. 160. The New Interglacial Climate
  161. 161. Locations Affected
  162. 162. What is affected?  Agriculture  Transportation  Population distribution  Energy needs
  163. 163. Oceanic Overturning
  164. 164. Carbon Content
  165. 165. Carbon Capture & Storage
  166. 166. Marine Sequestration
  167. 167. Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
  168. 168. Reforestation
  169. 169. Chemical Conversion  Carbon dioxide ----> formic acid  Preservative  Perfume  Scale removal  Fuel cells
  170. 170. CO2 to Fuel Using  gallium phosphide
  171. 171. CO2 absorption Peridotite  (Oman)
  172. 172. CO2 Consumption by Algae GreenFuel Technologies 
  173. 173. Lower Emissions
  174. 174. Carbon - Free?
  175. 175. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  176. 176. Fuel Cell Hybrids
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