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Class presentations slides for ERM 150 (third quarter) in Spring Semester 2009

Class presentations slides for ERM 150 (third quarter) in Spring Semester 2009

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  • 1. The Restless Earth
  • 2. Why are some locations vulnerable?
  • 3. Continental Drift  Alfred Wegener 1880 - 1930  Meteorologist 1915 “The Origin of Continents and Oceans” 
  • 4. Pangaea
  • 5. Earth’s interior
  • 6. Earth’s interior
  • 7. Plate tectonics Evidence: Mesosaurus fossils Glossopteris ferns “puzzle pieces” Glacial debris
  • 8. Mesosaurus & Glossopteris
  • 9. Gemstones
  • 10. Jigsaw Puzzle pieces
  • 11. Sea Floor magnetization
  • 12. Plate tectonics
  • 13. Tectonic Plate Motion
  • 14. Plate boundaries Divergent  Convergent  Lateral Transform 
  • 15. Divergent plates Mid-Atlantic Ridge 
  • 16. Convergent boundary  Nazca/S. American plates  Himalayas  Orogeny
  • 17. Lateral Transform San Andreas 
  • 18. Fault Rupture 1906  Bolinas 
  • 19. Seismic Waves P waves  faster move through land & water S waves  do not pass through liquids
  • 20. Seismic waves
  • 21. Seismograph
  • 22. Triangulation 3 locations  Measure arrival times  of P and S waves P: 6 - 6.7 km/s S: 3 - 4 km/s
  • 23. Triangulating epicenters
  • 24. Epicenter
  • 25. Richter scale 1935 Charles Richter  (Cal Tech)
  • 26. Richter Scale Logarithmic  scale 7.2 quake has  amplitude 10x greater than 6.2 30x energy released
  • 27. Richter values
  • 28. Mercalli scale
  • 29. Tsunamis Not tidal waves  High velocity  silent 
  • 30. December 26, 2004 9.2 earthquake  250,000 deaths 
  • 31. December 26, 2004
  • 32. Predicting Earthquakes May 12, 2008 
  • 33. Ancient Earthquakes Jericho  Red Sea 
  • 34. Decade of Earthquakes London  Feb 8, 1750 March 6, 1750
  • 35. Lisbon Nov 1 1755  All Saints Day  tsunami 
  • 36. Rev. Charles Davy  “Every parish church, convent, nunnery,  palace, and public edifice, with an infinite number of private houses, were either thrown down or so miserably shattered that it was rendered dangerous to pass by them. The whole number of persons that perished, including those who were burnt or afterwards crushed to death whilst digging in the ruins, is supposed, on the lowest calculation, to amount to more than sixty thousand;”
  • 37. New Madrid, MO 1811
  • 38. San Francisco 1906
  • 39. SF Earthquake 1906  April 18, 1906 5:12 am  7.8 - 8.2  42 seconds of shaking
  • 40. Bay Area quakes  1836 7.0  1838 7.0  1858 6.4  1861 6.1  1865 6.6  1868 6.9
  • 41. San Francisco 1905 Dennis Sullivan  1851 “Great Fire”  1900 City Hall 
  • 42. April 18, 1906 Caruso @ Palace Hotel 
  • 43. Fire  Ruptured gas lines  74 hours  490 blocks damaged  $500 million
  • 44. Aftermath 40,000+  Homeless Chinatown  500 - 3000 deaths 
  • 45. 1906 - 1989
  • 46. Loma Prieta 1989  Oct 17, 1989 5:04 pm  7.2  15 - 20 seconds
  • 47. 1989 Battle of the Bay  Game 3 
  • 48. Bay Bridge
  • 49. Cypress Street Viaduct
  • 50. SF Marina
  • 51. Liquefaction
  • 52. Santa Cruz Garden Mall 
  • 53. Loma Prieta 1989 67 deaths,  3800 injured 12,000 homeless  $6 Billion 
  • 54. Benefits? Stopped Hayward  creep Raised mountains  retrofitting 
  • 55. The Next Quake 70% probability  in the next 20-30 years
  • 56. Northridge 1994 Jan 17, 1994  4:30 am 61 deaths,  9,000 injured $20 Billion 
  • 57. Palm Desert Oct 16, 1999  6.9 magnitude 
  • 58. Seattle 2001 Feb 28, 2001  6.8 magnitude 
  • 59. Pacific Northwest Potential?  tsunami 
  • 60. Plate tectonics
  • 61. Vulcanism
  • 62. Hot spots
  • 63. Hawaiian Islands
  • 64. Ring of Fire
  • 65. Magma Pressure
  • 66. Volcanic Gases VOG  (volcanic smog)
  • 67. Benefits? Fertile soil  Land creation 
  • 68. Geothermal Energy
  • 69. Extinct vs. Dormant vs. Active Extinct  (Devil’s Tower) Dormant  (Mt. Fuji) Active  (Kilauea)
  • 70. Iceland
  • 71. Historic Eruptions Toba 74,000 yrs ago 
  • 72. Caldera MT. Mazama  Aka Crater Lake
  • 73. Santorini 1628 BC  Atlantis? 
  • 74. Yellowstone
  • 75. Krakatoa August 27, 1883 
  • 76. Krakatoa Localized tsunami Sumatra/Java 
  • 77. Mt. Pelee Martinique, May 1902  nuee ardente (pyroclastic flow)
  • 78. Mt St Helens May 1980  $3 Billion damage 
  • 79. Mt St Helens Lahar  Infrastructure  damage
  • 80. Cascade Volcanoes
  • 81. Predicting Eruptions Earthquakes  Ground temperatures  Chouet 
  • 82. Silent Killers 1986 Lake Nyos  Cameroon
  • 83. El Chichon 1982
  • 84. Mt. Pinatubo 1991
  • 85. Mt Pinatubo
  • 86. Mt. Tambora 1815
  • 87. “The Year without a Summer”  1816 “Darkness” (Lord Byron)  “I had a dream, which was not all a dream. The bright sun was extinguish'd, and the stars Did wander darkling in the eternal space, Rayless, and pathless, and the icy earth Swung blind and blackening in the moonless air; Morn came and went--and came, and brought no day”
  • 88. Franklin 1783-4 Laki, Iceland  Asama, Japan
  • 89. 1816 Jefferson’s Journal 
  • 90. Volcanoes and Climate Volume of debris  Height of Column  Gases emitted 
  • 91. Volumes of Eruption Debris Volcanic Explosivity Index  (VEI) Eruption Year VEI Casualties Nevado del 1985 3 25,000 Ruiz Mt. Pelee 1902 4 30,000 Krakatau 1883 6 36,000 Tambora 1815 7 92,000 Unzen 1792 3 15,000 Laki 1783 4 9,000 Kelut 1586 4 10,000
  • 92. Climate effects
  • 93. Earth’s climate Habitable zone  Sufficient Gravity  Water 
  • 94. Early Earth 3 Billion years ago initially H2& He Nitrogen (N2), Carbon dioxide(CO2) from volcanoes
  • 95. Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
  • 96. Earth’s atmosphere N2 78% O2 20.9% Ar 0.93 % CO2 0.038%
  • 97. Carbon Dioxide levels
  • 98. Global Temperatures
  • 99. Historic Climate Eras
  • 100. Medieval Warm Period  Population Boom  Viking Travel  England exported wine  Steppe Drought
  • 101. The Little Ice Age  Grain production  Ergot Blight  Plague  Patagonian icefields
  • 102. Climate Cycles  Ice Ages and Interglacials
  • 103. Ice Age - Glacial Maximum
  • 104. Tree Rings - Dendrochronology
  • 105. Assessing Historic Climates Glacial Ice Cores 
  • 106. Glacial Ice Cores  Air composition  Volcanic ash pollen  Oxygen isotope distribution
  • 107. Oxygen Isotopes -16O, 18O
  • 108. Isotope data
  • 109. Causes of Climate Cycles Orbital variation  Tilt change  Solar flux 
  • 110. Orbital Variation 100,000 year cycle
  • 111. Obliquity of the Earth’s Axis Tilt = 23.5o 
  • 112. Changes in the Earth’s Tilt 41,000 year cycle  Greater tilt: Interglacial  Less tilt: Glaciation 
  • 113. Precession 26,000 year cycle 
  • 114. Solar Forcing Changes in Flux 
  • 115. Sunspots
  • 116. Maunder Minimum
  • 117. Comparison
  • 118. Cosmic Rays
  • 119. Cloud Cover
  • 120. Greenhouse gases
  • 121. Greenhouse Gases
  • 122. Greenhouse Gases
  • 123. Greenhouse Gases
  • 124. Venus 800 K temp 90x atmosphere 96% CO2
  • 125. Global Warming  Glacial Melting  Permafrost thaw  Increased evaporation  Coral reef bleaching  Seasonal change
  • 126. Glacial Melting
  • 127. Polar Ice Caps
  • 128. Greenland
  • 129. Antarctic Ice
  • 130. Sea Level Rising
  • 131. Coastlines Affected
  • 132. One to Five meter rise
  • 133. Since the last Glacial Maximum
  • 134. Consequences
  • 135. San Francisco
  • 136. Increased Evaporation Rates Severe Storms Coastal Erosion Fires
  • 137. Tropical Storm Formation
  • 138. 2005 Katrina  Rita Wilma
  • 139. Coastal Erosion
  • 140. 2005 Coastal Erosion Hurricane Rita
  • 141. Saltwater Intrusion
  • 142. Ocean Heat Penetration
  • 143. El Niño
  • 144. El Niño 1998
  • 145. El Niño Frequency
  • 146. Permafrost Thaw
  • 147. Coral Reef Bleaching
  • 148. Wildlife Habitats
  • 149. Already Extinct
  • 150. Expanded Pest Ranges
  • 151. Expanded Pest Populations
  • 152. Ocean Conveyor Belt
  • 153. Salinity Decrease
  • 154. Day After Tomorrow? Abrupt Climate  change
  • 155. Climate Flip Flop Positive  feedback
  • 156. Abrupt Climate Change
  • 157. Younger Dryas  12,800 - 11,400 yo  Thermohaline reversal?  Agriculture?
  • 158. The New Ice Age
  • 159. The New Interglacial
  • 160. The New Interglacial Climate
  • 161. Locations Affected
  • 162. What is affected?  Agriculture  Transportation  Population distribution  Energy needs
  • 163. Oceanic Overturning
  • 164. Carbon Content
  • 165. Carbon Capture & Storage
  • 166. Marine Sequestration
  • 167. Photosynthesis CO2 + H2O -----> O2 + Glucose
  • 168. Reforestation
  • 169. Chemical Conversion  Carbon dioxide ----> formic acid  Preservative  Perfume  Scale removal  Fuel cells
  • 170. CO2 to Fuel Using  gallium phosphide
  • 171. CO2 absorption Peridotite  (Oman)
  • 172. CO2 Consumption by Algae GreenFuel Technologies 
  • 173. Lower Emissions
  • 174. Carbon - Free?
  • 175. Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  • 176. Fuel Cell Hybrids