Biology 123 Global Climate Change ControversyPresentation Transcript
Today’s Agenda: Experiential learning outdoors redux “The good of a flourishing creation” Mini-lecture: Introduction to Global Climate Change PBL: Analysis of the Global Climate Change Controversy (p. 49) For Friday, be prepared to… Present your team’s research of the GCC controversy (p. 49) on Friday Discuss Heatstroke chs 10-11 and “Climate care” by Cal DeWitt
Experiential Learning Outdoors Redux What did we learn about… Invasive species? Keystone species? Very adapted to ecosystem, and affect life of other species in the ecosystem. (can invasive species be a keystone?)- Yes, well adapted to environment, invasive can unnative (garlic mustard) profoundly affects other species. Abiotic factors that affect ecosystems? Hydrology, soil, Temp and variations of temp. Environmental stewardship? (calvinand land preservancies) its not easy, but its worth while because it brings joy when successfully brining it back. Gives a “sense of place”- can be spiritual, we like to move a lot, and we don’t have a sense of home. This gives us that place. (rapid growth media for examples) What makes Lamberton Lake Fen and Saul Lake Bog worth preserving? What are the challenges? The unique native species that live there, Michigan wetlands have higher biodiversity than wetlands in the tropics. This is something worth fighting for. The challenge is finding money and maintaining the system to fight the threats of diseases, invasive species, and contractors. Were these field trips worthwhile? Why or why not? Yes, being there has value, or at least more the reading about it. Classrooms are very unnatural.
The Good of a Flourishing Creation (davewarners and borst- response to Schniders book) How would you describe affluence?- wealthy, many material possessions, (x-money vs y-happiness relationship levels off) money buys happiness only to your basic needs How would you describe flourishing?- living out your purpose- being who god intends us to be. Disciples. Which of these do you desire most?- everyone wants to find happiness, and have our basic needs met. How will your answer affect choice that you make? The way that you live?-
The Good of a Flourishing Creation Important questions: Is the achievement of human affluence more important than the welfare of the broader creation?- hell no. Does material affluence always necessitate a degradation of creation?- when humans are more affluent there are more disturbances in the environment.
The Good of a Flourishing Creation The planet can only hold so much biomass. More and more human bio mass, then there are less biomass for the rest “God’s desire for human beings to flourish occurs within his desire for the whole creation to flourish.” “There is now little doubt that the current impact of human beings is seriously jeopardizing the ability of the broader creation to flourish.”
The Good of a Flourishing Creation “God’s creation is one in which there is no mere existence, only co-existence.” “Recognizing ourselves as relational beings dependent on the integrated communities within which we exist, should have significant consequences for the lifestyle choices that we make. God desires ‘full delight’ not only for us as individuals, but also for the communities we necessarily exist within.”
The Good of a Flourishing Creation “Stewardship modeled after an embedded, servant Christ will lead to human activity within the creation that foundationally exhibits gentle ruling, serving and preserving.” “Furthermore, if our model for creation care comes from Christ who gave up his life for the entire creation, the instead of viewing creation as a resource for our expanding affluence, we should address the question, what can we give up so that the creation can better flourish?”
The Good of a Flourishing Creation “Acquisition and enjoyment of affluence, while neither inherently evil nor cosmically good, must be considered in light of its costs to our relationships with other people and our relationships with the broader creation. Shalom is the guiding principle here – thus affluence should be assessed as proper or improper depending on its ability to promote right relationships that lead to a clearer reality of shalom.”
Global Climate Change:An Introduction Weather vs Climate – What is the difference? Average of the highs and lows over ten months “Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere ‘behaves’ over relatively long periods of time.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/noaa-n/climate/climate_weather.html Weather: day-to-day changes in temperature and precipitation Climate: seasonally-adjusted averages in weather patterns Meteorologists (weatherman) use scientific data and weather models to forecast weather conditions that change quickly. Climatologists (climate) use scientific data and climate models to study the periodicity of weather events over 10s to 1000s of years. (rings of trees) The day to day models are different from trends over long periods of time. So I meteorologists can’t be climatologist. Meteorologist say things about climate change that show expertise… but there not.
Global Climate Change:An Introduction Global Climate Change - long-term alteration in global climate patterns, especially increases in temperature and storm activity (1. energy differences- storms rely in heat energy in the atmostphere. GCC increase the heat in the atmosphere. 2- moisture. Warmer air holding more water, humidity levels go up.) (short term weather changes have nothing to do with it) Key questions Is global climate change occurring? What are the drivers of climate change? How does climate change affect living systems?
Climate Literacy 7 Essential Principles of Climate Science The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s climate system. Climate is regulated by complex interactions among components of the Earth system. Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate. Climate varies over space and time through both natural and human-induced processes. Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling. Human activities are impacting the climate system. Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives.
Essential Principles of Climate Science The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth’s climate system. Much of the sunlight that reaches Earth is absorbed and warms the planet. When Earth emits the same amount of energy as it absorbs, its average temperature remains stable. The tilt of Earth’s axis relative to its orbit around the Sun results in predictable seasonal changes. Gradual changes in Earth’s rotation and orbit change the intensity of sunlight received in our polar and equatorial regions. Satellite measurements taken over the past 30 years show that the Sun’s energy output has changed only slightly.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Why not the ozone- uv radiation is reflected because of the ozone layer in the atmosphere. O3. its thinning. More radiation is passing through. But O3 doesn’t absorb heat. All it does is allow more uv light in--- which just means more sun screen Climate is regulated by complex interactions among components of the Earth system. Earth’s climate is influenced by interactions involving the Sun, ocean, atmosphere, clouds, ice, land, and life. Oceans exert a major control on climate by dominating Earth’s energy and water cycles. Greenhouse gases—e.g. water vapor, CO2, and methane— absorb heat energy more efficiently than abundant gases like N2 and O2. The abundance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is controlled by biogeochemical cycles.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate is regulated by complex interactions among components of the Earth system. Airborne particulates (“aerosols” ) have a complex effect on Earth’s energy balance: they can cause both cooling, by reflecting incoming sunlight back out to space, and warming, by absorbing and releasing heat energy in the atmosphere. The interconnectedness of Earth’s systems means that a significant change in any one component of the climate system can influence the equilibrium of the entire Earth system. Positive feedback loops can amplify these effects and trigger abrupt changes in the climate system.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Life on Earth depends on, is shaped by, and affects climate. Individual organisms survive within specific ranges of temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sunlight. Small amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere warms Earth’s surface, sustaining liquid water and life. Changes in climate conditions can affect the health and function of ecosystems and the survival of entire species. Natural records show that the last 10,000 years have been an unusually stable period in Earth’s climate history. (agriculture is in jeopardy if this is true. No more food) Life—including microbes, plants, animals and humans—is a major driver of the global carbon cycle and can influence global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate varies over space and time through both natural and human-induced processes. Climate is determined by long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation averages and extremes at a location. Climate change is a significant and persistent change in an area’s average climate conditions or their extremes. Scientific data indicate that global climate has changed in the past, is changing now, and will change in the future. Based on evidence from tree rings, other natural records, and scientific observations made around the world, Earth’s average temperature is now warmer than it has been for at least the past 1,300 years.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate varies over space and time through both natural and human-induced processes. Natural processes driving Earth’s long-term climate variability do not explain the rapid climate change observed in recent decades. The only explanation that is consistent with all available evidence is that human impacts are playing an increasing role in climate change. Natural processes that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere operate slowly when compared to the processes that are now adding it to the atmosphere. Co2 levels are increasing.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling. The components and processes of Earth’s climate system are subject to the same physical laws as the rest of the Universe. Therefore, the behavior of the climate system can be understood and predicted through careful, systematic study. Environmental observations are the foundation for understanding the climate system. These include weather instruments and natural records, such as tree rings, ice cores, and sedimentary layers. Observations, experiments, and theory are used to construct and refine computer models that represent the climate system and make predictions about its future behavior.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Our understanding of the climate system is improved through observations, theoretical studies, and modeling. Climate scientists’ ability to predict climate patterns months, years, or decades into the future is constrained by different limitations than those faced by meteorologists in forecasting weather days to weeks into the future. Scientists have conducted extensive research on the fundamental characteristics of the climate system and their understanding will continue to improve. Current climate change projections are reliable enough to help humans evaluate potential decisions and actions in response to climate change.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Human activities are impacting the climate system. The overwhelming consensus of scientific studies on climate indicates that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the latter part of the 20th century is very likely (99%) due to human activities. Emissions from the widespread burning of fossil fuels since the start of the Industrial Revolution have increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Human activities have affected the land, oceans, and atmosphere, and these changes have altered global climate patterns.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Human activities are impacting the climate system. Growing evidence shows that changes in many physical and biological systems are linked to human-caused global warming (Barnosky). Some changes resulting from human activities have decreased the capacity of the environment to support various species and have substantially reduced ecosystem biodiversity and ecological resilience. Scientists and economists predict that there will be both positive and negative impacts from global climate change. If warming exceeds the predicted 2 to 3°C (3.6 to 5.4°F) over the next century, the consequences of the negative impacts are likely to be much greater than the consequences of the positive impacts.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives. Melting of ice sheets and glaciers, combined with the thermal expansion of seawater as the oceans warm, is causing sea level to rise. (water is the biggest concern. As precepitation changes, mountains get more dry. More expensive for food. Cali and michigan are the agriculturally diverse. The great lakes. This means that later in our lifetime, michigan will be the best place to live In the united states. Climate plays an important role in the global distribution of freshwater resources. Changing precipitation patterns and temperature conditions will alter the distribution and availability of freshwater resources, reducing reliable access to water for many people and their crops. Incidents of extreme weather are projected to increase as a result of climate change. These include: heat waves, episodes of severe cold, less frequent but more intense precipitation.
Essential Principles of Climate Science Climate change will have consequences for the Earth system and human lives. Increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere is causing ocean water to become more acidic, threatening the survival of shell-building marine species and the entire food web of which they are a part. Ecosystems on land and in the ocean are disturbed by climate change. Animals, plants, bacteria, and viruses will migrate to areas with favorable climate conditions, invading areas they did not previously inhabit. Human health and mortality rates will be affected to different degrees in specific regions of the world as a result of climate change.
PBL: GCC Controversy (p. 49) Issue – natural cycles or human induced? Stakeholders – science, faith, economics, justice, culture Perspectives – opinions v. facts, data v. knowledge Part I. Preparation with your team today Part II. Presentations on Friday, 10/7 Part III. Personal Reflections due Monday, 10/10