Lightweight Rowing Presentation


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Lightweight Rowing Presentation by Dr. Timothy Hosea at 2006 USRowing Convention

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Lightweight Rowing Presentation

  1. 1. Lightweight Rowing  
  2. 2. Basic objectives of sport <ul><li>Help the athlete to have fun </li></ul><ul><li>Help physical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper health habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help psychological development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop self worth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help social development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation in competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Striving to win </li></ul>
  3. 3. Weight Classification Sports <ul><li>Expands the pool of competitive athletes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows equal sized athletes to compete on a relatively level playing ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adds an additional objective: making weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception that bigger to smaller is a competitive advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masochistic culture threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As if lactic acid isn’t enough </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Issue With Weight Loss 1997 Three Intercollegiate deaths
  5. 5. The Deceased <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17% total weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10.5% in the preceding 10 -13 week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% in preceding 12 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14% total weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% in the preceding 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5% in preceding 4 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>#3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% total weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.7% in the preceding 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.8% in the preceding 3 hours </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Joint Resolution <ul><li>Eliminate from wrestling any and all weight control practices that could potentially risk the health of the participants </li></ul>
  7. 7. NCAA Wrestling Changes <ul><li>Banned saunas, hot wrestling rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Changed weight classes </li></ul><ul><li>Moved weigh-in to 1 hour before dual meet, 2 hrs before championships </li></ul><ul><li>Precertification of weight classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on hydrated body fat measurements </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Rowing Experience <ul><li>2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former German rower attempting to make the lightweight team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not supervised by the German rowing establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston College lightweight male rower collapsed and died following a race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown cause </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. USRowing <ul><li>No published recommendations or rules to ensure safe weight loss practices </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Medicine Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures on the subject of lightweights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A need for fairly specific guidelines regarding safe practices for weight loss and competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on best data available </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Selecting Lightweights
  11. 11. Selecting Lightweights
  12. 12. Heavy to Light <ul><li>Slater GJ, Australian Institute of Sport, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Three athletes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss range 2 – 8 kg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>31.7% - 84.6% from muscle mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 16 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger athlete unable to be competitive at weight </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. A Successful Lightweight <ul><li>More Mesomorphic than endomorphic </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter sitting height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer arms and legs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greater muscle mass, lower body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Body Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Male = 7.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female = 12.4% (11%) </li></ul></ul>Slater, ASI, 2005
  14. 14. Weight Loss Strategies <ul><li>Morris, FL 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Season long body weight reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female: 61.3 to 57.0 kg (5.9%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male: 75.6 to 69.8 kg (7.8%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant reduction in body fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of Skin Folds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women: 80.9 - 68.2 mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men: 54.2 – 41.8 mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female: 22.1 – 19.4% (2.4%) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male: 10% - 7.8% (2.3%) </li></ul></ul></ul>No changes in fat free muscle mass
  15. 15. Weight reduction <ul><li>Morris FL, 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>73.3% Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>71.4% Food restriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62.9% Fluid restriction </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Long Term Weight Loss ACSM and NCAA
  17. 17. Long Term Weight Loss <ul><li>Consistent agreement of 1-2 lbs per week </li></ul>
  18. 18. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Females rowers more prone to disturbing eating practices and weight control methods than males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempting to lose or prevent weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Induced vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diet pills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laxatives or diuretics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk factor is 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight men have the greatest fluctuation in weight </li></ul>Sykora C, 1993; Terry PC, 1999
  19. 19. Performance Consequences of Dehydration <ul><li>2% loss- decreased ability to cool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>probably little effect on performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3% loss- decreased muscle endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased heart rate, perceived exertion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased blood volume, oxygen transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4% loss- significantly decreased endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deficits persist even after 4+ hours of rehydration </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Rapid Weight Loss <ul><li>Burge, 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.2% weight loss over 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.5L rehydration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000m erg test increased by 22 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slator, 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% weight loss over 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive nutritional rehydration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect on rowing performance less than expected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slator, 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% weight loss over 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive rehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.7% compromise in erg performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal challenge = 1.1% erg score compromise </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Rapid Weight Loss and Anaerobic Performance <ul><li>Rankin, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>3.3% mass reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly reduced anaerobic performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High carbohydrate rehydration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate carbohydrate did not improve the performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Rapid Weight Loss Isokinetic Performance <ul><li>Oopic, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss 5-6% over three days </li></ul><ul><li>5 minute isokinetic test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak torque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max power output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Not recovered after 16.5 hours rehydration </li></ul>
  23. 23. Physiology of Acute Dehydration <ul><li>Decreased blood and plasma volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased stroke volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased cardiac output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decreased renal blood flow and renal filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Increased lactate accumulation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased ability to sweat </li></ul>
  24. 24. Severe Acute Dehydration <ul><li>Viscari, 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Weight reduction Strategies Slater, 2005
  26. 26. Rehydration
  27. 27. Applying Wrestling Experience to Rowing <ul><li>Preselect lightweights based on projected body fat at weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not less than 5-7% for men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AUS national championships = 7.6% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not less than 12-15% for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AUS national championships = 12.4% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Off season weight must be within predetermined range of weigh-in weight </li></ul>
  28. 28. Weight Loss Strategy Plan Ahead
  29. 29. Weight Loss Strategy <ul><li>Calorie counting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one pound fat = 3500 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease intake by 500 - 1000 calories/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fat not necessarily bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>important for satiety, vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid extreme hunger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eat more earlier in day - energy for workouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor planning can lead to binges </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Selecting Lightweights <ul><li>No large difference between in-season and off-season weights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FISA: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5kg. Above weight limit 5-6 months before competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3kg. Above weight limit 2-3 months before competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1kg. Weight loss in the week before competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No health consequences from being at weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate body fat percentage at weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No physical or psychological consequences of weight making </li></ul>
  31. 31. Weight Loss Strategy <ul><li>Food efficiency - harder to lose as more is lost </li></ul><ul><li>Interim goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weekly weigh - ins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DO NOT CHANGE WEIGHT GOAL </li></ul><ul><li>Plan to dehydrate not more than 2% just before weigh-in </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressively rehydrate immediately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Danger Signs <ul><li>Watch for eating disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secretive, ritualistic eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive exercise, compromising performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women who lose periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remember the power of coaches’ suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Losing too much, too fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tired, weak, unable to finish workouts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staying light in off season, between races </li></ul>
  33. 33. Coaches Responsibility <ul><li>Do not ignore the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Never leave it up the rowers </li></ul><ul><li>Your Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting the right people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making weight gradually and safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weigh-in considerations </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Conclusion <ul><li>Lightweight rowing allows smaller people to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Making weight does not need to be extraordinarily unpleasant, or adversely affect performance </li></ul><ul><li>If we are smart about weight management and who becomes a lightweight, we can encourage participation and maximize performance </li></ul>
  35. 35. Princeton University Managed Weight Certification Program <ul><li>Initial HYDRATED weight certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific gravity < 1.020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body fat determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed test repeated in 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done between the first day of classes and November 15th </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Princeton University Managed Weight Certification Program <ul><li>Weight modification plan provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>% body fat limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5% male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly weight loss <1.5% of body weight per week </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Princeton University Managed Weight Certification Program <ul><li>Recertification in the spring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second hydrated weigh-in in second semester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sooner than 4 weeks prior competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No later than one week before competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weekly weigh in during the season prior to practice </li></ul>
  38. 38. USRowing: Discussion <ul><li>National recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism to eliminate severe acute dehydration prior to racing </li></ul><ul><li>Youth athletes </li></ul>