Transpired Solar Collector Fresh Air Heating System  that Happens to be a Wall
Transpired Solar Collectors Presented by ATAS International, Inc. AIA/CES Provider Number J447 AIA/CES Program Number ATA0...
ATAS International is a Registered Provider with Construction Specification Institute Construction Education Network.  Cre...
ATAS International is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems.  Credi...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate an improved understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Heating and Fresh Air Ventil...
Heating Your Building With Solar Energy Transpired Solar Collector Efficient, Simple and Cost Effective
Transpire: Definition Etymology: Latin  trans-  +  spirare  to breathe to pass off or give passage to  through pores or in...
Transpired Solar Collector Concept <ul><li>A proven technology in use for the last  16 years </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable e...
 
“ In the US, Buildings account for 36% of total energy use,  and 30% of  Greenhouse gas emissions” USGBC
In December 2005, the  AIA  Board of Directors policy   stated the goal of slashing the use of fossil fuels by  50%  in  4...
Transpired Solar Wall System <ul><li>Beneficial in Buildings that: </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in outside air  and   require h...
How the Solar Collector Works During Heating Season
The Basics <ul><li>Sun shines on the solar collector </li></ul><ul><li>Air is drawn through tiny perforations </li></ul><u...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Main components of the solar a...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER The solar heat absorber absorbs the sun’s energy Heating Season
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER Boundary layer air is heated and drawn  through tiny perforations into the air space Heating Season AI...
AIR SPACE UNDER NEGATIVE PRESSURE AIR GAP PROFILED SHEET PROVIDES WIND BOUNDARY LAYER SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE Bounda...
Heated air travels up to the air intake  and into the HVAC system SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE Heating Season TO DISTRIBU...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Heated air is then evenly dist...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Heat loss through the wall is ...
When specifying, there are some Important Factors that  affect  performance
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul>                             
Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 20 ° 20 ° EAST WALL Ideal Orientation ● 96-100% Solar Gain SOUTH...
Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 45 ° 45 ° EAST WALL Favorable Orientation ● 80-100% Solar Gain S...
Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 90 ° 90 ° EAST WALL Acceptable Orientation ● East & West facing ...
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul>
Heating Degree Days The total number of degrees,  throughout the year,  that you would need to heat  in order to reach  65...
Geography/Climate Important Factors 0 - 2000 2000 - 4000 4000 - 6000 6000 - 8000 Over  8000 ANNUAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS
Geography / Climate Important Factors Latitude affects angle of solar radiation; becomes more direct farther north Angle o...
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Ab...
Important Factors Solar Absorptivity of 0.5 50% Effective Linear Relationship Black Boysenberry Patina Green The higher th...
Preferred Colors Absorption Rates Black Classic Bronze Chocolate Brown 94% 91% 90% 90% 89% Hartford Green Medium Bronze Bo...
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Ab...
Solar Radiation Available <ul><li>Data on “Global Radiation” from government sources </li></ul><ul><li>Typically measured ...
Important Factors 500 w/m²  = 150 BTUs/hour/ft ²
Important Factors Approximate Average for Daylight Hours
Solar Radiation Available <ul><li>Typical solar radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800 to 1000 W/m 2  on sunny day </li></ul>...
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Ab...
Outside Ventilation Air Requirement <ul><li>Generally measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Known from...
Typical Buildings with High Ventilation Requirements <ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals/Institutional </li></u...
Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Ab...
Suitable Collector Wall Area <ul><li>Reasonable orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Noncombustible, watertight wall assembly </l...
<ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Coll...
Air Flow Rate Through Collector <ul><li>Total required outside ventilation air/ collector wall area </li></ul><ul><li>Meas...
Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors Consider the Typical day in Chicago
Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 4 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors
Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 4 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 10 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors
Solar Collector  Augments Conventional Heater <ul><li>Average January temperature in Chicago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low 14....
How the Solar Collector Wall Works During Cooling Season
<ul><li>Not only does the system  </li></ul><ul><li>help heat in the winter,  </li></ul><ul><li>it reduces the cooling loa...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HVAC SYSTEM In the summer, outside air enters the bypass damper to pr...
SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HVAC SYSTEM Hot air enters the air space behind the collector and is ...
The amount of solar radiation impinging on a south-facing wall is much less in summer than winter. Winter Summer Cooling S...
Cooling Season Solar radiation intensity on a vertical wall is much less in Summer 64 0 Pittsburgh, PA 17 0 Winter Solstic...
Benefits During Cooling Season <ul><li>Warm air vented by natural convection </li></ul><ul><li>Collector panels shade main...
The “Summer Shift” <ul><li>Angle of sun shifts - solar intensity is much less on vertical walls; much more on roofs </li><...
Typical Problems with  Heating Buildings
Buildings Lose Heat  Through Walls <ul><li>Even well-insulated walls lose a  </li></ul><ul><li>significant amount of heat ...
Transpired Solar Collectors Recapture  Heat Lost Through the Outer Wall
Health Concerns
Inadequate fresh air leads to The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) <ul><ul><li>Symptoms include: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffic...
<ul><ul><li>“ Increasing ventilation rates and air distribution can be a cost effective means of reducing indoor pollutant...
High Fuel Costs <ul><li>Fuel prices are high and are predicted to increase even more </li></ul><ul><li>To save costs, many...
“ Our school  doesn’t have heat – or if we do, they don’t turn it on.” - Anonymous Pennsylvania School Student
Local fuel costs are more significant than climate in determining investment payback!
Average Price of Natural Gas Source: Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Monthly 2006 Averages of January, Febr...
Percentage Increases <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38.5 % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul>...
Transpired Solar Collectors Use FREE Solar Energy
Heat Stratification <ul><li>In industrial buildings, heaters are often located near the ceiling to save floor space.  Sinc...
Negative Pressure <ul><li>Negative pressure occurs when more air is exhausted than is brought in </li></ul><ul><li>Workers...
 
Heat Stratification & Negative Pressure Hot Zone Cold Zone Cold Zone Fans exhaust the hottest air causing cold air to infi...
Destratification of  Industrial Buildings <ul><li>Floor-to-ceiling temperature gradients are common in industrial building...
Heat Loss In Stratified Building Outside Air Infiltration 30 0  F Losses Through Roof Exhaust losses Heating Season 80 0  ...
Solar Collector is warmed from the sun Overheated Air Cold Air In Work Area Preferred Air  Temperature Heating Season Outs...
Warmed Air Is Pulled Up Solar Collector Heating Season 60 0  F
Warmed Air Is Distributed And Mixes With Overheated Ceiling Air Heating Season
Heat Lost Through Roof Is A Lower Temperature Losses Through Roof Exhaust losses Heating Season Floor To Ceiling Stratific...
What About  Moisture Penetration? MOLD
<ul><li>Requirements for mold growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undisturbed Water </li>...
Moisture and the Solar Collector <ul><li>Excess moisture drains out bottom Flashing Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Air space i...
Energy Savings During  Heating Season <ul><li>Direct solar heating of outside air </li></ul><ul><li>Recapturing heat loss ...
 
<ul><li>Solar Solves Typical  Heating Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Panels recover heat loss from wall </li></ul><ul><li>Syst...
Why consider an  a Transpired Solar Collector? <ul><li>Converts up to 80% of solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effect...
Typical Building  Applications
Industrial Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Commercial Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Retail Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Maintenance Facilities Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Farming Buildings Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Schools & Other Institutions Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Apartment Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Crop Drying (Walnut Drying) Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
Manufacturing Facilities
The Real System
Panel Properties <ul><li>Panels are .032” aluminum or pre-weathered .027” zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of standard ...
Typical Installation <ul><li>Panels are installed 4-8” from wall </li></ul><ul><li>Can be installed over or around existin...
Typical Connections <ul><li>HVAC system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preheats air before entering air handler, thus reducing loa...
Typical Connections <ul><li>Heated air supplied directly into building: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar-heated air is supplied...
Fan Specification <ul><li>Fan capacity based on air requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer large capacity fans are generally ...
Computer Model for  Feasibility Studies <ul><li>RETScreen   Solar Air Heating Model available free-of-charge </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>RETScreen   Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Online Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Product Data </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Da...
Minimum Requirements  For RETScreen   Analysis <ul><li>Project Name and Address </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Heating Applica...
RETScreen  International  Feasibility Analysis Example <ul><li>Input/ Description: </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago, IL industr...
<ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Air Flow Rate: 5.6 cfm/ ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. seasonal daytime temperature rise: ...
Case Study
Case Study <ul><li>GM Canada, Oshawa, Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Black collector; 4,520 ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Average dayt...
From CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC) Report GM Canada, Oshawa, Ontario Case Study Case Study and photo courtesy of ...
Economics of Solar Air Heating <ul><li>Reduces annual energy consumption by 2 to 3 therms per sq. ft. of collector </li></...
Efficiency Tests <ul><li>National Resources Canada National Solar Test facility </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor testing with vari...
Measured Efficiency <ul><li>The amount of solar radiation captured by the Transpired Solar Collectors is up to 80%, with a...
Sustainable Aspects of  Solar Air Heating <ul><li>System converts the sun’s radiation into non-polluting warm air </li></u...
Government Incentives <ul><li>Federal 30% Investment Tax Credit through 2007 and 5 year depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Num...
Endorsements <ul><li>“ Transpired collectors provide the most reliable, best performing, and lowest cost solar heating for...
Solar Air Heating:  The Right Choice for Business <ul><li>Fuel is renewable and non-polluting </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal ma...
Useful Links: Federal Energy Management Program: www.eere.energy.gov/femp /   (search: “Transpired Solar Collector” and “S...
Thank you for your time! QUESTIONS? This concludes the AIA/CES and CSI CEU program. ATAS International, Inc. www.atas.com ...
ATAS International, Inc. Manufactures Transpired Solar Collectors Under the Brand name
Visit the ATAS website www.atas.com For detailed information on InSpire  and other ATAS products.
Visit the ATAS website www.atas.com For detailed information on InSpire  and other ATAS products.
<ul><li>Available online: </li></ul><ul><li>A Specification writing wizard (www.spec.atas.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback ...
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Aia Csi Transpired Solar Collector June2007

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Aia Csi Transpired Solar Collector June2007

  1. 1. Transpired Solar Collector Fresh Air Heating System that Happens to be a Wall
  2. 2. Transpired Solar Collectors Presented by ATAS International, Inc. AIA/CES Provider Number J447 AIA/CES Program Number ATA002 CSI CEN Provider Number CEN-07-182 CSI CEN Program Number CSI-A0067
  3. 3. ATAS International is a Registered Provider with Construction Specification Institute Construction Education Network. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CSI CEN. Certificates of Completion will be mailed for each attendee. This program is a registered educational program with the Construction Specifications Institute of Alexandria, VA. The content within the program is not created or endorsed by CSI nor should the content be construed as an approval of any product, building method, or service. Information on the specific content can be addressed at the conclusion on the program, by the Registered Provider. ATAS International, Inc. is a Registered Provider with the Construction Specifications Institute Construction Education Network (CEN). Credit earned for completing this program will automatically be submitted to the CSI CEN. Completion certificates can be obtained by contacting the Provider directly. This logo and statement identify Provider programs registered with CSI CEN and are limited to the educational program content.
  4. 4. ATAS International is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program (one Learning Unit in Health, Safety & Welfare) will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion will be mailed for each attendee. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
  5. 5. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Demonstrate an improved understanding of: </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Heating and Fresh Air Ventilation System </li></ul><ul><li>How Transpired Solar Collectors Function </li></ul><ul><li>Wall Orientation, Components and Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Features and Benefits of Transpired Solar Collectors during both Heating and Cooling Seasons </li></ul>
  6. 6. Heating Your Building With Solar Energy Transpired Solar Collector Efficient, Simple and Cost Effective
  7. 7. Transpire: Definition Etymology: Latin trans- + spirare to breathe to pass off or give passage to through pores or interstices
  8. 8. Transpired Solar Collector Concept <ul><li>A proven technology in use for the last 16 years </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses solar energy to preheat outdoor air as it is drawn into a building </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. “ In the US, Buildings account for 36% of total energy use, and 30% of Greenhouse gas emissions” USGBC
  10. 11. In December 2005, the AIA Board of Directors policy stated the goal of slashing the use of fossil fuels by 50% in 4 years and reducing by an additional 10% every 5 years thereafter.
  11. 12. Transpired Solar Wall System <ul><li>Beneficial in Buildings that: </li></ul><ul><li>Bring in outside air and require heat </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Require heated air for processes </li></ul><ul><li>(crop drying) </li></ul>
  12. 13. How the Solar Collector Works During Heating Season
  13. 14. The Basics <ul><li>Sun shines on the solar collector </li></ul><ul><li>Air is drawn through tiny perforations </li></ul><ul><li>Heated air is drawn to the top by a fan and distributed into the building </li></ul>Heating Season
  14. 15. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Main components of the solar air heating system Heating Season
  15. 16. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER The solar heat absorber absorbs the sun’s energy Heating Season
  16. 17. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER Boundary layer air is heated and drawn through tiny perforations into the air space Heating Season AIR SPACE AIR SPACE UNDER NEGATIVE PRESSURE AIR GAP PROFILED SHEET PROVIDES WIND BOUNDARY LAYER
  17. 18. AIR SPACE UNDER NEGATIVE PRESSURE AIR GAP PROFILED SHEET PROVIDES WIND BOUNDARY LAYER SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE Boundary layer air is heated and drawn through tiny perforations into the air space Heating Season OUTSIDE AIR IS HEATED PASSING THROUGH ABSORBER
  18. 19. Heated air travels up to the air intake and into the HVAC system SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE Heating Season TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM
  19. 20. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Heated air is then evenly distributed in the building via conventional distribution system Heating Season
  20. 21. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS HVAC SYSTEM Heat loss through the wall is recovered when the fan is running Heating Season
  21. 22. When specifying, there are some Important Factors that affect performance
  22. 23. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul>                             
  23. 24. Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 20 ° 20 ° EAST WALL Ideal Orientation ● 96-100% Solar Gain SOUTH WALL Important Factors
  24. 25. Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 45 ° 45 ° EAST WALL Favorable Orientation ● 80-100% Solar Gain SOUTH WALL Important Factors
  25. 26. Collector Orientation N E S W S-E WALL S-W WALL WEST WALL 90 ° 90 ° EAST WALL Acceptable Orientation ● East & West facing walls each receive 60% of solar gain SOUTH WALL Important Factors
  26. 27. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul>
  27. 28. Heating Degree Days The total number of degrees, throughout the year, that you would need to heat in order to reach 65° F.
  28. 29. Geography/Climate Important Factors 0 - 2000 2000 - 4000 4000 - 6000 6000 - 8000 Over 8000 ANNUAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS
  29. 30. Geography / Climate Important Factors Latitude affects angle of solar radiation; becomes more direct farther north Angle of solar radiation at solar noon during Winter Solstice 56 0 64 0 71 0 Dallas Pittsburgh Spokane
  30. 31. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Collector </li></ul>
  31. 32. Important Factors Solar Absorptivity of 0.5 50% Effective Linear Relationship Black Boysenberry Patina Green The higher the absorption rate, the higher the temperature rise.
  32. 33. Preferred Colors Absorption Rates Black Classic Bronze Chocolate Brown 94% 91% 90% 90% 89% Hartford Green Medium Bronze Boysenberry Rocky Grey Regal Blue Hemlock Green Forest Green Slate Blue Redwood Teal Slate Grey Patina Green 86% 85% 85% 84% 82% 80% 79% 79% 79% 77% Differences in monitor calibrations may result in color discrepancies. Exact color chips on request.
  33. 34. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Collector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Radiation Available </li></ul>
  34. 35. Solar Radiation Available <ul><li>Data on “Global Radiation” from government sources </li></ul><ul><li>Typically measured in watts/m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted for orientation of collector </li></ul><ul><li>Changes hour-by-hour </li></ul>Important Factors
  35. 36. Important Factors 500 w/m² = 150 BTUs/hour/ft ²
  36. 37. Important Factors Approximate Average for Daylight Hours
  37. 38. Solar Radiation Available <ul><li>Typical solar radiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800 to 1000 W/m 2 on sunny day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 W/m 2 on cloudy day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflection from snow can increase radiation up to 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Shading from buildings, etc. decreases radiation </li></ul>Important Factors
  38. 39. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Collector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Radiation Available </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Ventilation Air Requirement </li></ul>
  39. 40. Outside Ventilation Air Requirement <ul><li>Generally measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Known from current practice, or </li></ul><ul><li>Determined from accepted standards (ASHRAE 62) </li></ul><ul><li>Information required to determine collector and fan size </li></ul>Important Factors
  40. 41. Typical Buildings with High Ventilation Requirements <ul><li>Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals/Institutional </li></ul><ul><li>Schools/Gymnasiums </li></ul><ul><li>Arenas </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Government/Military </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters/Conference Centers </li></ul>
  41. 42. Important Factors <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Collector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Radiation Available </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Ventilation Air Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable Collector Wall Area </li></ul>
  42. 43. Suitable Collector Wall Area <ul><li>Reasonable orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Noncombustible, watertight wall assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Subtract window and door area </li></ul><ul><li>Information on wall area required to determine collector capability </li></ul>Important Factors
  43. 44. <ul><li>Collector Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Location/Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Absorptivity of Collector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Radiation Available </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Ventilation Air Requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable Collector Wall Area </li></ul><ul><li>Air Flow Rate through Collector </li></ul>Important Factors
  44. 45. Air Flow Rate Through Collector <ul><li>Total required outside ventilation air/ collector wall area </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in cfm/ square foot of collector wall area </li></ul><ul><li>Higher flow rates have lower air temperature rise </li></ul><ul><li>Lower flow rates have higher air temperature rise </li></ul>Important Factors
  45. 46. Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors Consider the Typical day in Chicago
  46. 47. Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 4 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors
  47. 48. Air Flow Rate = 1 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 4 cfm/ ft 2 Air Flow Rate = 10 cfm/ ft 2 Important Factors
  48. 49. Solar Collector Augments Conventional Heater <ul><li>Average January temperature in Chicago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low 14.3 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avg. 22.0 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High 29.6 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar collector air temperature rise of </li></ul><ul><li>0 o F to 65 o F augments, but does not replace, conventional heater </li></ul>Important Factors
  49. 50. How the Solar Collector Wall Works During Cooling Season
  50. 51. <ul><li>Not only does the system </li></ul><ul><li>help heat in the winter, </li></ul><ul><li>it reduces the cooling load in summer!! </li></ul>
  51. 52. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HVAC SYSTEM In the summer, outside air enters the bypass damper to provide fresh air indoors. SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS Cooling Season
  52. 53. SOLAR HEAT ABSORBER AIR SPACE TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HVAC SYSTEM Hot air enters the air space behind the collector and is vented out the top by natural convection. Panels act as a sunscreen preventing the sunshine from hitting the wall, keeping the building wall cooler. SIDE-MOUNTED SUMMER BYPASS Cooling Season
  53. 54. The amount of solar radiation impinging on a south-facing wall is much less in summer than winter. Winter Summer Cooling Season
  54. 55. Cooling Season Solar radiation intensity on a vertical wall is much less in Summer 64 0 Pittsburgh, PA 17 0 Winter Solstice Summer Solstice
  55. 56. Benefits During Cooling Season <ul><li>Warm air vented by natural convection </li></ul><ul><li>Collector panels shade main wall </li></ul><ul><li>Damper bypasses collector and provides fresh air </li></ul>
  56. 57. The “Summer Shift” <ul><li>Angle of sun shifts - solar intensity is much less on vertical walls; much more on roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Energy emphasis shifts to “cool roofs” in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Transpired Solar Collectors can be combined with deciduous trees to combat </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heat Island Effect” </li></ul>
  57. 58. Typical Problems with Heating Buildings
  58. 59. Buildings Lose Heat Through Walls <ul><li>Even well-insulated walls lose a </li></ul><ul><li>significant amount of heat </li></ul>
  59. 60. Transpired Solar Collectors Recapture Heat Lost Through the Outer Wall
  60. 61. Health Concerns
  61. 62. Inadequate fresh air leads to The Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) <ul><ul><li>Symptoms include: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Eye, nose, skin, or throat irritation </li></ul><ul><li>And more </li></ul>“ Improving air quality and comfort without increasing space heating costs was a real challenge, especially in our climate, but the [transpired solar collector] system did just that. And besides routine care such as oiling the fans, the system is practically maintenance free .” - Alois First, Plant Engineer at Boeing
  62. 63. <ul><ul><li>“ Increasing ventilation rates and air distribution can be a cost effective means of reducing indoor pollutant levels” </li></ul></ul>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  63. 64. High Fuel Costs <ul><li>Fuel prices are high and are predicted to increase even more </li></ul><ul><li>To save costs, many building managers cut back on fresh air and lower thermostats causing more problems </li></ul>
  64. 65. “ Our school doesn’t have heat – or if we do, they don’t turn it on.” - Anonymous Pennsylvania School Student
  65. 66. Local fuel costs are more significant than climate in determining investment payback!
  66. 67. Average Price of Natural Gas Source: Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Monthly 2006 Averages of January, February and March Sold to Commercial Consumers Dollars per Thousand Cubic Square Feet Does not include transmission costs
  67. 68. Percentage Increases <ul><li>Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38.5 % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minnesota </li></ul><ul><ul><li>41.9% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colorado </li></ul><ul><ul><li>37.5% </li></ul></ul>An average 2 year Increase Of 42.6% Among state examples listed Source: Energy Information Administration, Natural Gas Monthly 2006
  68. 69. Transpired Solar Collectors Use FREE Solar Energy
  69. 70. Heat Stratification <ul><li>In industrial buildings, heaters are often located near the ceiling to save floor space. Since hot air rises, ceilings become overheated. </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust fans located on the roof then draw out this overheated air, wasting additional energy </li></ul>
  70. 71. Negative Pressure <ul><li>Negative pressure occurs when more air is exhausted than is brought in </li></ul><ul><li>Workers near walls can experience cold drafts from cold air entering along floor level to replace exhausted air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers tend to compensate by raising the thermostat, which increases energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doors become hard to open – serious injury can result from slamming doors </li></ul><ul><li>Back drafting of combustion equipment can create carbon monoxide hazard </li></ul>
  71. 73. Heat Stratification & Negative Pressure Hot Zone Cold Zone Cold Zone Fans exhaust the hottest air causing cold air to infiltrate at floor level
  72. 74. Destratification of Industrial Buildings <ul><li>Floor-to-ceiling temperature gradients are common in industrial buildings </li></ul><ul><li>This is compounded by ceiling heaters, ceiling exhaust and negative pressure </li></ul>Heating Season
  73. 75. Heat Loss In Stratified Building Outside Air Infiltration 30 0 F Losses Through Roof Exhaust losses Heating Season 80 0 F 60 0 F
  74. 76. Solar Collector is warmed from the sun Overheated Air Cold Air In Work Area Preferred Air Temperature Heating Season Outside Air Temperature 30 0 F 80 0 F 60 0 F
  75. 77. Warmed Air Is Pulled Up Solar Collector Heating Season 60 0 F
  76. 78. Warmed Air Is Distributed And Mixes With Overheated Ceiling Air Heating Season
  77. 79. Heat Lost Through Roof Is A Lower Temperature Losses Through Roof Exhaust losses Heating Season Floor To Ceiling Stratification Is Greatly Reduced Positive or Balanced Pressure Ceiling Temperature Is Lowered 72 0 F
  78. 80. What About Moisture Penetration? MOLD
  79. 81. <ul><li>Requirements for mold growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undisturbed Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aggravating factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, humid conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shady areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing mold growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control excess moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilate </li></ul></ul>(Sources: CDC, AIHA, & California Research Bureau)
  80. 82. Moisture and the Solar Collector <ul><li>Excess moisture drains out bottom Flashing Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Air space is heated, lowering relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>High ventilation rates in heating season </li></ul><ul><li>Natural ventilation in cooling season </li></ul><ul><li>Proven history of successful installations </li></ul>
  81. 83. Energy Savings During Heating Season <ul><li>Direct solar heating of outside air </li></ul><ul><li>Recapturing heat loss through walls </li></ul><ul><li>Destratifying industrial buildings </li></ul>Heating Season
  82. 85. <ul><li>Solar Solves Typical Heating Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Panels recover heat loss from wall </li></ul><ul><li>System provides heated fresh air </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates negative pressure problems </li></ul><ul><li>Fans destratify ceiling heat </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased occupant comfort </li></ul>
  83. 86. Why consider an a Transpired Solar Collector? <ul><li>Converts up to 80% of solar radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective way to meet code requirements for ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly maintenance free </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable environmental impact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for LEED ® credits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Favorable tax incentives </li></ul>
  84. 87. Typical Building Applications
  85. 88. Industrial Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  86. 89. Commercial Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  87. 90. Retail Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  88. 91. Maintenance Facilities Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  89. 92. Farming Buildings Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  90. 93. Schools & Other Institutions Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  91. 94. Apartment Buildings Photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  92. 95. Crop Drying (Walnut Drying) Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  93. 96. Manufacturing Facilities
  94. 97. The Real System
  95. 98. Panel Properties <ul><li>Panels are .032” aluminum or pre-weathered .027” zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of standard colors available </li></ul><ul><li>Over 240 perforations per ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Corrugated to increase structural rigidity </li></ul>The Real System
  96. 99. Typical Installation <ul><li>Panels are installed 4-8” from wall </li></ul><ul><li>Can be installed over or around existing wall openings </li></ul><ul><li>Can be installed over any non-combustible wall material </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation – no special skills or tools needed </li></ul>The Real System
  97. 100. Typical Connections <ul><li>HVAC system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preheats air before entering air handler, thus reducing load on conventional heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be designed to work in a majority of situations, which makes it ideal for both new and retrofit applications </li></ul></ul>The Real System Photos courtesy of Conserval Engineering
  98. 101. Typical Connections <ul><li>Heated air supplied directly into building: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar-heated air is supplied directly to the building via a perforated flexible duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ducting destratifies ceiling heat reducing heating load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for both new and retrofit applications </li></ul></ul>The Real System
  99. 102. Fan Specification <ul><li>Fan capacity based on air requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer large capacity fans are generally more cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure drop through the perforated panels is approximately 0.1 inch of H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Total pressure drop through panels, canopy and into fan is approx. 0.2 to 0.4 inch of H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering assistance available for fan selection </li></ul>The Real System
  100. 103. Computer Model for Feasibility Studies <ul><li>RETScreen  Solar Air Heating Model available free-of-charge </li></ul><ul><li>www.retscreen.net </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Natural Resources Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Model provides comprehensive analysis of all important factors </li></ul><ul><li>RETScreen  has been validated by various independent agencies </li></ul>
  101. 104. <ul><li>RETScreen  Features: </li></ul><ul><li>Online Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Product Data </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Data </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Data </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Options </li></ul><ul><li>Model Worksheets: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Model </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Resource </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Summary </li></ul>
  102. 105. Minimum Requirements For RETScreen  Analysis <ul><li>Project Name and Address </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Heating Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation Air or Crop Drying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial or Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Objective </li></ul><ul><li>High Temp Gain (Space Heating) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Operation </li></ul><ul><li>High Efficiency (High Air Volume) </li></ul><ul><li>New or Existing Building? </li></ul><ul><li>Building Floor Plan with Southern Elevations </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Type of Existing Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Total Air supplied to building, ventilation plus recirculated (cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Air exhausted from building (cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Total outside air to be supplied by collector (cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Existing fuel type, cost and seasonal efficiency (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Will solar collector fans be used in summer? </li></ul><ul><li>Specify solar collector area available (ft²) </li></ul><ul><li>Height and Length of Collector (ft) </li></ul><ul><li>Collector Slope (usually 90°) </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Collector Color </li></ul>
  103. 106. RETScreen  International Feasibility Analysis Example <ul><li>Input/ Description: </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago, IL industrial facility, 132,000 ft² existing building </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation air required 1 volume change/ hour (56,000 cfm) </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Bronze; absorptivity 0.91 </li></ul><ul><li>Collector area – 10,000 ft 2 on south wall </li></ul><ul><li>Investment incentive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% Federal Tax Credit </li></ul></ul>
  104. 107. <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Air Flow Rate: 5.6 cfm/ ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Avg. seasonal daytime temperature rise: 11 o F </li></ul><ul><li>Annual energy savings: 3,119 million Btu </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in CO 2 vs. natural gas: 265 tons/year </li></ul><ul><li>Annual savings: $56,502 US </li></ul><ul><li>Simple payback: 3 years [2.4 years using Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS)] </li></ul>
  105. 108. Case Study
  106. 109. Case Study <ul><li>GM Canada, Oshawa, Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Black collector; 4,520 ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Average daytime air flow 5.0 cfm/ ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime average air temperature rise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Season 13.6 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>January (max) 22.4 o F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May (min) 7.7 F </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efficiency 72% average </li></ul><ul><li>Annual energy savings: 2.5 therms/ ft 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Payback less than 5 years (1994) </li></ul>1 therm = 100,000 BTUs
  107. 110. From CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC) Report GM Canada, Oshawa, Ontario Case Study Case Study and photo courtesy of Conserval Engineering.
  108. 111. Economics of Solar Air Heating <ul><li>Reduces annual energy consumption by 2 to 3 therms per sq. ft. of collector </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces annual heating costs by $2 to $8 per sq. ft. of collector, depending on fuel replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Payback period generally 3 to 5 years for commercial buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate cost $14 to $16 per sq. ft. of wall, installed. Fans, dampers, ducts, etc. are extra </li></ul>1 therm = 100,000 BTU’s
  109. 112. Efficiency Tests <ul><li>National Resources Canada National Solar Test facility </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor testing with variable intensity calibrated lamp </li></ul><ul><li>Energy of heated air compared to solar radiation energy </li></ul><ul><li>Additional tests at DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratories </li></ul>
  110. 113. Measured Efficiency <ul><li>The amount of solar radiation captured by the Transpired Solar Collectors is up to 80%, with an average of 65%. </li></ul>Up to 80% Efficiency!
  111. 114. Sustainable Aspects of Solar Air Heating <ul><li>System converts the sun’s radiation into non-polluting warm air </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional heating system is used less, therefore solar air heating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces energy consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces greenhouse emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average CO 2 reductions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41 lbs / ft 2 (of solar collector) / annum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to meet Kyoto Protocol; an important step against global climate change </li></ul></ul>
  112. 115. Government Incentives <ul><li>Federal 30% Investment Tax Credit through 2007 and 5 year depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous state tax incentives, rebates, grants and loans ( www.dsireusa.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED ® ) Credits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimize energy performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-Site renewable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycled content </li></ul></ul>
  113. 116. Endorsements <ul><li>“ Transpired collectors provide the most reliable, best performing, and lowest cost solar heating for commercial and industrial buildings available on the market today.” </li></ul><ul><li>(U.S. Department of Energy) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It simply works – The simplest, most efficient, and least expensive way to preheat outside air for industrial and commercial applications is through the use of a perforated plate absorber” (Natural Resources Canada) </li></ul>
  114. 117. Solar Air Heating: The Right Choice for Business <ul><li>Fuel is renewable and non-polluting </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime of energy savings </li></ul><ul><li>Potential LEED ® credits </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Socially responsible </li></ul><ul><li>30 Year paint warranty </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces Greenhouse Gases </li></ul>
  115. 118. Useful Links: Federal Energy Management Program: www.eere.energy.gov/femp / (search: “Transpired Solar Collector” and “Solar Air Heating”) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: www.eere.energy.gov / (search: “Transpired Solar Collector”) Canadian Renewable Energy Network: www.canren.gc.ca/prod_serv (select “Solar Energy - Publications”) Natural Resources Canada – Renewable Energy Project Analysis: www.retscreen.net Database of Federal and State Incentives for Renewable Energy: www.dsireusa.org / Case studies available for specific building types. Ask for more information.
  116. 119. Thank you for your time! QUESTIONS? This concludes the AIA/CES and CSI CEU program. ATAS International, Inc. www.atas.com 800-468-1441
  117. 120. ATAS International, Inc. Manufactures Transpired Solar Collectors Under the Brand name
  118. 121. Visit the ATAS website www.atas.com For detailed information on InSpire and other ATAS products.
  119. 122. Visit the ATAS website www.atas.com For detailed information on InSpire and other ATAS products.
  120. 123. <ul><li>Available online: </li></ul><ul><li>A Specification writing wizard (www.spec.atas.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback areas </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>CAD details </li></ul><ul><li>Installation Guides (Spanish too) </li></ul><ul><li>Sample warranties </li></ul><ul><li>Photo gallery </li></ul>

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