Learning Science


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Learning Science

  1. 1. TAPOVAN SCHOOL Learn Life Skills
  2. 2. Learning Science in Scientific Way
  3. 3. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature MILLETSThe millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops or grains, widely grownaround the world for food and fodder. Their essential similarities are that they are small-seeded grasses grown in difficult production environments such as those at risk ofdrought.The millets include species in several genera, mostly in the subfamily Panicoideae, of thegrass family Poaceae. The exceptions, finger millet and teff, are in the subfamilyChloridoideae. The most widely cultivated species in order of worldwide production are:• Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Also known as Bajra in India, and as Kambu in Tamil)• Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) (Also known as Thinai in Tamil)• Proso millet, common millet, broom corn millet, hog millet or white millet (Panicum miliaceum)• Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) (Also known as Ragi or Mandwa in India, and as Kezhvaragu in Tamil) Comtinued
  4. 4. Exploring NatureThere is no better teacher than Nature MILLETS We have taken a few students , mostly from class 8 to show a few avilable fields where millets are grown . In this experiment, students thoroughly enjoyed the visit to the fields. Some of the fields to which they were taken are where millets like Paddy, Ragi, Maize, Bajra etc are grown. Ensuing videos will show their visits to each field.
  5. 5. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature MAIZEMaize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays, pronounced /ˈ meɪz/; from Spanish:maíz after Taino mahiz,) known in many English-speaking countries ascorn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples inMesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears whichcontain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernelsare used in cooking as a vegetable or starch. The Olmec and Mayanscultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southernMexico, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Between1700 and 1250 BCE, the crop spread through much of the Americas. Theregion developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties ofmaize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15thand early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back toEurope and introduced it to other countries. Comtinued
  6. 6. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature MAIZEMaize spread to the rest of the world due to its ability to grow in diverseclimates. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown forhuman consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feedand as chemical feedstocks.Maize is the most widely grown crop in the Americas with 332 millionmetric tons grown annually in the United States. Approximately 40% ofthe crop - 130 million tons - is used for corn ethanol. Transgenic maize(Genetically Modified Corn) made up 85% of the maize planted in theUnited States in 2009. While some maize varieties grow to 12 metres (39ft) tall, most commercially grown maize has been bred for a standardizedheight of 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). Sweet corn is usually shorter than field cornvarieties.
  7. 7. Visit to Maize Field
  8. 8. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature RAGI (FINGER MILLET)Eleusine coracana, commonly Finger millet Marathi) Kannada) Oriya) Punjabi) Gujarati) Thamizh)(Amharic ˈˈˈ"Dagusa" or ˈˈˈ tōkūsō), also known as African milletor Ragi in Tamil in Kannada, inOriya) is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in thearid areas of Africa and Asia. E. coracana is originallynative to the Ethiopian Highlands and was introducedinto India approximately 4000 years ago. It is veryadaptable to higher elevations and is grown in theHimalaya up to 2,300 metres in elevation.
  9. 9. Visit to Ragi Field
  10. 10. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature PADDYA paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used forgrowing rice and other semiaquatic crops. Paddy fieldsare a typical feature of rice farming in east, south andsoutheast Asia. Paddies can be built into steep hillsidesas terraces and adjacent to depressed or steeply slopedfeatures such as rivers or marshes. They can require agreat deal of labor and materials to create, and needlarge quantities of water for irrigation. Flooded paddiesprovide an ideal environment for rice cultivation anddiscourage the growth of many weeds. The water buffalois one of the most important working animals adapted forlife in wetlands, and is used extensively in paddy fields. Comtinued
  11. 11. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature PADDYDuring the twentieth century, paddy field farming became the dominantform of growing rice.[citation needed] Paddy field farming is practiced inCambodia, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, NorthKorea, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, thePhilippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos, as well asPiedmont in Italy, the Camargue in France, the Artibonite Valley in Haiti,and Sacramento Valley in California. Paddy fields are a major source ofatmospheric methane and have been estimated to contribute in therange of 50 to 100 million tonnes of the gas per annum. Recent studieshave shown that this can be significantly reduced while also boostingcrop yield by draining the paddies to allow the soil to aerate to interruptmethane production.The word "paddy" is derived from the Malay word padi, rice plant.
  12. 12. Visit to Paddy Field
  13. 13. Exploring NatureThere is no better teacher than Nature TOOR DAL (PIGEON PEA)The pigeon pea (International Feed Number, 5-03-716), also known as tropical green pea, toordāl or arhar dāl (India), kadios (Philippines), orCongo pea or gungo pea (in Jamaica), poisCongo (in Haiti), gandul (in Puerto Rico), gungapea, or no-eye pea, [Cajanus cajan, synonymsCajanus indicus Spreng. (Valder 1895) andCytisus cajan (Crawfurd 1852)] is a perennialmember of the family Fabaceae. Comtinued
  14. 14. Exploring Nature There is no better teacher than Nature TOOR DAL (PIGEON PEA)The cultivation of the pigeon pea goes back at least 3500 years. Thecentre of origin is the eastern part of peninsular India, including thestate of Orissa, where the closest wild relatives (Cajanus cajanifolia)occur in tropical deciduous woodlands. Archaeological finds ofpigeonpea include those from two Neolithic sites in Orissa, Gopalpurand Golbai Sassan dating between 3400 and 3000 years ago, andsites in South India, Sanganakallu and Tuljapur Garhi, also dating backto 3400 years ago. From India it traveled to East Africa and WestAfrica. There is was first encountered by Europeans, so it obtained thename Congo Pea. By means of the slave trade it came to the Americancontinent, probably in the 17th century
  15. 15. Visit to Toordal Field
  16. 16. Exploring NatureThere is no better teacher than Nature BAJRA (PEARL MILLET)Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the mostwidely grown type of millet. Grown in Africa andthe Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times, itis generally accepted that pearl millet originatedin Africa and was subsequently introduced intoIndia. The center of diversity, and suggested areaof domestication, for the crop is in the Sahel zoneof West Africa. Recent archaeobotanical researchhas confirmed the presence of domesticatedpearl millet on the Sahel zone of northern Malibetween 2500 and 2000 BC. Comtinued
  17. 17. Exploring NatureThere is no better teacher than Nature BAJRA (PEARL MILLET)Cultivation subsequently spread and has movedoverseas to India. The earliest archaeological recordsin India date to around 2000 BC, and it spread rapidlythrough India reaching South India by 1500 BC, basedon evidence from the site of Hallur. Cultivation alsospread throughout eastern and southern Africa.Records exist for cultivation of pearl millet in the UnitedStates in the 1850s, and the crop was introduced intoBrazil in the 1960s. Comtinued
  18. 18. Exploring NatureThere is no better teacher than Nature BAJRA (PEARL MILLET) Pearl millet is well adapted to growing areas characterized by drought, low soil fertility, and high temperature. It performs well in soils with high salinity or low pH. Because of its tolerance to difficult growing conditions, it can be grown in areas where other cereal crops, such as maize or wheat, would not survive. Today pearl millet is grown on over 260,000 km² worldwide. It accounts for approximately 50% of the total world production of millets.
  19. 19. Visit to Bajra Field
  20. 20. A Presentation By TAPOVAN SCHOOL 26th September 2011