Food, Nutrition, Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals
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Food, Nutrition, Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals

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IICA, May 28th 2004

IICA, May 28th 2004

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    Food, Nutrition, Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals Food, Nutrition, Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals Presentation Transcript

    • INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty Food, Nutrition, Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals Joachim Von Braun Director General International Food Policy Research Institute IICA, May 28th 2004
    • Overview of Presentation 1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) origin, concept and pitfalls 2. The role of Agriculture on MDGs 3. Challenges and disruptions on path to achieving MDGs INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2
    • Origin and concept of MDGs  Millennium Declaration Goals  Strong international commitment  Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and one or more targets for each. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3
    • Millennium Development Goals 1. Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 4
    • Towards achieving MDGs: Trend of undernourished people Developing World 950 920 Developing world without China Millions Undernourished 900 850 800 817 750 780 798 700 650 663 600 616 624 635 550 500 1979-81 1990-92 1995-1997 1999-2001 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 5
    • Problems facing MDG achievement  Theoretical problem: for efficient achievement of goals you need at least as many instruments as goals (Tinbergen)  A goal by goal approach may lead to inefficient instrument portfolios (e.g. agriculture, infrastructure neglected)  Roadmap to reach MDGs is missing  Lack of country and regional strategy INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 6
    • Agriculture and MDGs  Agriculture is important in stimulating sustainable economic growth and rural employment, and it can be the cornerstone for food security and poverty reduction  Agriculture serves many of the MDGs INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 7
    • MDG 1: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty Agriculture plays a crucial role in poverty and hunger eradication Agriculture employment and undernourishment, 1996 - 2000 < 2. 5 undernourished % of population 2. 5 - 4 5 - 19 20 -3 4 > 35 0% 10% 20% 3 0% 40% 50% 60% 70% Agr icultur e emp loyment as a % of total emp loyment ( %) INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 8 Source: FAO, 2003
    • MDG 1: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty DIRECT EFFECTS 1. Agricultural productivity growth increases food availability and raises farm income improving consumption levels 2. Improves asset levels to enhance production and diminishes effects of shocks in the future 3. Increased production will decrease prices, improving purchasing power of the poor INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 9
    • MDG 1: Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty INDIRECT EFFECTS 1. Households depending on rural non-farm economy and agro-industrial sector will:  Increase income  Lead to more diversified and resilient economies  Increase demand for agricultural products (virtuous cycle) 2. Agriculture as engine of growth across all other national economies INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 10
    • MDG 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education 1. Use of labor saving agricultural technology, reduces opportunity cost of farmer’s children attending school. 2. Broad economic growth will demand increasingly skilled labor, increasing returns of investing in children’s education 3. Agriculture-led economic growth should free more public resources to invest in education INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 11
    • MDG 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Improving agricultural productivity and empowering women works both ways: 1. Women’ s principal productive activities are in agriculture in developing world. Improving agriculture institutions in which women participate will promote economic opportunities for women. 2. Gender equality is a precondition for agriculture and rural development INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 12
    • MDG 4: Reduce child mortality 1. Agriculture assures food and nutrition security, decreasing child mortality 2. Women as caregivers: agricultural labor and time saving innovations will free time to care for their children 3. Dynamic agricultural sector will free resources for health spending INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 13
    • MDG 5: Improve maternal health 1. Agriculture can improve the quality of diets of women, improving maternal health 2. Increasing micronutrient content in food crops, declines prevalence of micronutrient deficiency among women, making maternal mortality rates drop. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 14
    • MDG 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 1. Good nutrition achieved though a dynamic agriculture will help mitigate impacts of HIV/AIDS 2. Improved agricultural productivity reduces risky behaviors, e.g. labor migration exposes population to new diseases. 3. Agricultural technology can create labor saving techniques for HIV affected households facing loss of labor power. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 15
    • MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability 1. Agriculture is the biggest user of water. Need for an efficient and sustainable agricultural sector and the public revenues that accrue from it that will enable greater levels of public provision of safe drinking water and improved sanitation. 2. A productive and sustainable agricultural system requires less land, leaving marginal agricultural lands to other uses (forests and other critical habitats) INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 16
    • MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability (Cont’d) 3. Population pressures in urban slums can be alleviated with profitable agriculture systems 4. Proper agricultural policies have the potential of allowing full costs of agricultural technologies to be considered: • reducing the scope for excessive nutrient run-off from agriculture • providing incentives for efficient energy use in the sector • ecologically sustainable use of a range of technologies INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 17
    • MDG 8: Develop a global partnership for development 1. International agriculture institutions are ahead in terms of global partnership. MDGs could learn from this experience (e.g. CGIAR, GFAR) 2. Need for a harmonized and rationalized global agricultural trade that will benefit poor agricultural producers 3. PRSPs should target agriculture as its the economic foundation for most poor people 4. Effective agricultural development will help decrease youth unemployment. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 18
    • Challenges to MDGs? Decreasing World Cereal Stocks World Cereal Stocks 700 600 500 million tons 400 300 200 100 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 19
    • Challenges to MDGs? Increasing World Cereal Prices Maize and Wheat International Prices 165 Maize 155 Wheat 145 135 U$S/Ton 125 115 105 95 85 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 20
    • Projections to 2015 Progressive Policy Actions Scenario: New Focus on Agricultural Growth and Rural Development Policy Failure Scenario: Trade and Political Conflict, Rise in Protectionism Worldwide Technology and Resource Management Failure Scenario: Adverse Technology/Natural Resource Interactions INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 21
    • World Cereal Production Progressive Policy Actions 3,500 Policy Failure Technology and Resource Management Failure 3,000 million mt 2,500 2,000 1,500 1997 2015 2030 2050 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 22
    • Number of Malnourished Children in the World 200 160 Million children 120 80 Progressive Policy Actions 40 Policy Failure Technology and Resource Management Failure 0 1997 2015 2030 2050 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 23
    • Contribution of Agriculture to MDGs Direct and Indirect contribution of  : strong  : medium agriculture to MDG achievement  : low 1. Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty  2. Achieve universal primary education  3. Promote gender equality and empower  women 4. Reduce child mortality  5. Improve maternal health  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other  diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability  8. Develop a global partnership for  development INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 24