Transcript of "Information processing & cognitive theories of learning"
Information Processing & Cognitive Theories of Learning Dr. Jennifer Irwin EDU 620: Module 6 Chapter 6
Brain Warm-Up! Each item below contains the initials of words that make up a commonphrase. Identify the missing words. (For example: 26 L. of the A. = 26 Letters of the Alphabet)► 7 = W. of the W. ► 8 = S. on a S.S.► 1,001 = A.N. ► 3 = B.M. (S.H.T.R.)► 12 = S. of the Z. ► 4 = Q. in a G.► 54 = C. in a D. ► 24 = H. in a D.► 9 = P. in the S.S. ► 1 = W. on a U.► 88 = P.K. ► 5 = D. in a Z.C.► 13 = S. on the A.F. ► 57 = H.V. ► 11 = P. on a side in F.► 32 = D.F. at which W.F. ► 1,000 = W. that a P. is W.► 18 = H. on a G.C. ► 29 = D. in F. in a L.Y.► 90 = D. in a R.A.► 200 = D. for P.G. in M. ► 64 = S. on a C.
Brain Warm-Up! answers► 7 = Wonders of the World► 1,001 = Arabian Nights► 12 = Signs of the Zodiac► 54 = Cards in a Deck► 9 = Planets in the Solar System (okay, so I kept poor Pluto in!)► 88 = Piano Keys► 13 = Stripes on the American Flag► 32 = Degrees Fahrenheit at which Water Freezes► 18 = Holes on a Golf Course► 90 = Degrees in a Right Angle► 200 = Dollars for Passing Go in Monopoly
Brain Warm-Up! answers► 8 = Sides on a Stop Sign► 3 = Blind Mice (See How They Run)► 4 = Quarts in a Gallon (or Quadrants in a Graph)► 24 = Hours in a Day► 1 = Wheel on a Unicycle► 5 = Digits in a Zip Code► 57 = Heinz Varieties► 11 = Players on a side in Football► 1,000 = Words that a Picture is Worth► 29 = Days in February in a Leap Year► 64 = Squares on a Checkerboard
► So, how did you do?►Ijust love puzzles (before I go to bed each night you can find me working on puzzles like these—or anything from Games magazine . . . Yes, I’m a dork!)► The point of this exercise was to illustrate the “storage” and “retrieval” functions of your memory (you needed the letters to help you “retrieve” the meanings of the numbers)
On now to Cognitive Learning Theory & Information Processing Theory …
General Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory► People’s prior experiences affect what they know and can do. Makes sense, right?► People’sinterpretations of their experiences influence the specific things they learn from the experiences. Have you heard the expression “perception is reality”?
General Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory► New learning builds upon prior learning. Try this. Read this sentence, then look away from the screen and write down as much as you can remember: ►“After walking a long time in the hot sun, we felt thirsty and so we began to look for a cool stream” How did you do? Did you remember all or most of the words?
General Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory► Now, try this sentence: “An important coordinating center in the hypothalamus integrates the involuntary nervous system, which enervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands” How did you do with this sentence? Does prior knowledge of a topic affect how well we will remember new learning?
General Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory► Motivation affects what and how much people will learn. Do you learn more when you are motivated?► Theconsequences that follow people’s behaviors affect their future learning and behavior. Does this sound familiar? (think Behaviorism)
General Principles of Cognitive Learning Theory► There is considerable diversity in what different people learn from any single experience. Have you ever read the same book as a friend and you loved it while he/she hated it? People process and interpret things in their own unique, idiosyncratic ways. We interpret/learn things through our own lenses or filters, we are necessarily influenced by our own experiences (we just can’t help it!)
Chapter 6 Study Guide► Besure that you have printed the Chapter 6 Study Guide. You can fill it in using: The PowerPoint Chapter 6 Here we go . . .
Cognitive Learning Theory► Cognitive learning strategies help students learn by making learning relevant and activating prior knowledge. Which means: building on or connecting with what students already know, authentic, real like, pertinent.► Rote learning is memorization.► Meaningful learning is information that makes sense to students; includes understanding concepts, ideas, theories.
Information Processing► Use these terms to fill in the 5 blank boxes on the study guide: Initial processing Sensory register Long-term memory External stimulus Short-term memory ► Check your answers using chapter 6
forgotten Short-External Sensory Initial Term/stimulus register processing Working Memory Pay attention to it, it will be processed. Info will get to If not, it will be filtered LTM from STM forgotten out or forgotten through repetition and rehearsal Long- Term Memory
Sensory Register • Taking in information through our senses • We either process it or it is forgotten► Has about a 2 sec. capacity which explains how a Thaumatrope works (click to see one in action).► We are able to see the bird in the cage because our brain keeps each image for a fraction of a second leaving both images in our sensory register.► (Here is another thaumatrope from a guy who seems to have a lot of time on his hands!)
Sensory Register & Attention► In order to process information, we must give it attention.► We have to be able to filter out certain things in order to focus on the important information► For example, in a classroom, students need to ignore background noise (like a fan) in order to hear what the teacher is saying Side note: One of the misconceptions about children with ADHD is that they can’t pay attention when in reality the problem oftentimes is that they are paying attention to everything and can’t properly filter.
Things that attract our attention:► Size (like a newspaper headline)► Intensity (someone screaming, fluorescent colors)► Novelty (something different, like a teacher wearing a costume to class)► Incongruity (something unexpected, like a elderly man skateboarding!)► Emotion (gawking at the scene of an accident)► How do you gain students attention in the classroom?
Short-Term Memory► Holds info for about 30 seconds unless it is further rehearsed► Has a limited capacity, can only hold about 5-9 pieces of information
Short-Term AKA “Working” Memory► When your short-term memory is being actively used, it is known as “working memory” (like trying to remember someone’s phone # long enough to dial it or write it down)► Students use working memory, for example, when they are asked to copy notes from the board.► Click here to try a working memory test► This is a simple Digits test where you are given a 2 digit number to remember, then a 3 digit, etc.► To challenge yourself further, go to the next slide.
Working memory test► This time, look at these digits and then look away and try to write them backwards.► For example, if I gave you 497, you would write 794.► Try this: 2961
Working memory test► Now: 83591► Then: 614729 How did you do? Which strategies did you use to help you remember► And last: and reverse the numbers? Did you use “chunking”? 3816527
Long-Term Memory► Hasa large capacity and can hold information indefinitely Think of 3 things that you have learned so far in educational psychology► LTM stores info and then we try to retrieve it (which can sometimes be problematic … like trying to remember something for a test) Have you ever been unable to remember the exact word you wanted to use? This is called “dysnomia” (a word retrieval problem).
3 Types of LTM2. Episodic memory Part of LTM that stores images of our experiences (e.g. childhood, vacations, getting engaged)3. Procedural memory The ability to recall how to do something
3 Types of LTM3. Semantic memory Stores info in mental networks of ideas (schema) I like to think of schema as a filing cabinet where you store all of your concepts. Try this: ► Go to your filing cabinet and pull out your folder/schema for horses
► Do you see things like: Saddle Mane Horseback riding Wild horses Farm
Remembering v. Forgetting► Sowhy exactly do we remember some things and not other things?► Usethe following list of terms to complete the chart on page 2 of the study guide:
► Inhibition ► Retroactive inhibition► Practice/Learning ► Enactment► Automaticity ► Facilitation► Interference ► Proactive inhibition► Part learning► Overlearning ► Any other ideas you► Massed & Distributed can think to add. practice
Teaching Strategies & Student Learning Strategies► There are so many strategies out there for teachers and students to use to help the learning process► Readthrough chapter 6 in order to complete pages 3 and 4 of your study guide.
Final note:► Take a look at the “Cognitive Learning Strategies Evaluation” assignment (wow, could that name be any longer??)► Theinformation you have learned in this module, as well as your own classroom experience, will help you with this assignment.► Any questions? . . . Just let me know!