Week 6 Visual Support

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  • Week 6 Visual Support

    1. 1. Week 6 Visual support - continued
    2. 2. “ Word Bank” <ul><li>Hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptic </li></ul>
    3. 3. Step 3 – Supporting your message Delivery Practice Design Support Structure Planning Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6
    4. 4. Visual support Step 1 - Planning Step 2 - Structure 1. Structural support 2. Visual support
    5. 5. People generally remember…
    6. 6. <ul><li>Tools </li></ul>
    7. 7. What TOOLS give visual support… <ul><li>Chalk and dry-erase boards </li></ul><ul><li>Flip charts and poster board </li></ul><ul><li>Handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple Keynote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presenters body language </li></ul>
    8. 8. Chalk & White-erase board <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys spontaneity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bad for large groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be prepared in advance </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Flip chart & poster board <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable (no electronics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique, today (not PPT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT good for large audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back to audience </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Flip Chart Tips <ul><li>Prepare in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Title (topic) on first page </li></ul><ul><li>Leave blank space for audience comments </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-draw diagrams in light pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Use big letters (not CAPS) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Black or blue text </li></ul><ul><li>7. Bright colors for charts/diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>8. Stand off to the side </li></ul><ul><li>9. Add conclusion page </li></ul><ul><li>10. Create feedback notes based on audience comments </li></ul>
    11. 11. Handouts <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides detail to audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to make in PPT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can distract from presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only pass out handouts at the end </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Presentation Software - PPT <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared in advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video & Audio capable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical difficulty </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Body Language <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distracting if inappropriate </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Abc 123 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Supporting Words & Numbers <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Story </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Numerical data </li></ul><ul><li>5. Comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>6. Metaphor </li></ul>
    16. 16. ‘SHARP’ening your presentation <ul><li>S = S tories </li></ul><ul><li>H = H umor </li></ul><ul><li>A = A nalogies </li></ul><ul><li>R = R eferences </li></ul><ul><li>P = P ictures/Visuals </li></ul>www.deckercommunications.com
    17. 17. 1. Examples <ul><li>A single illustration of information used to represent a larger group </li></ul><ul><li>Al Gore’s: “An Inconvenient Truth” </li></ul><ul><li>Patagonia </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Kilimanjaro </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina </li></ul>
    18. 18. 2. Storytelling <ul><li>Create images, emotions and understand </li></ul><ul><li>Oral – telling a tale </li></ul><ul><li>Visual – movie or graph </li></ul><ul><li>Textual –novel </li></ul><ul><li>Digital - PPT </li></ul>
    19. 19. Top 10 reasons to tell a story <ul><li>10. Real </li></ul><ul><li>9. Short </li></ul><ul><li>8. Interesting </li></ul><ul><li>7. Human </li></ul><ul><li>6. Give credibility </li></ul><ul><li>‘ third-party’ view </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>5. Easy to tell </li></ul><ul><li>4. Easier to remember </li></ul><ul><li>3. Emotionally connecting </li></ul><ul><li>2. Move people </li></ul><ul><li>1. We’ve been hearing stories since childhood </li></ul>
    20. 20. Quote <ul><li>“ The best way to see something is with your ears” </li></ul>©Roger von Oech
    21. 21. 3. Quote <ul><li>Using the exact words of a reputable source to: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce your main issue </li></ul><ul><li>Support your argument/conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Tip </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen the quote with a picture of the source </li></ul>
    22. 22. Where to get quotes? <ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikiquote.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.brainyquote.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.famous-quotations.com </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>“ I say that my conclusions are much more credible when I back them up with great sources” </li></ul>
    24. 25. 4. Numbers <ul><li>Numerical data that resulted from collection and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue growth </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul><ul><li># of people involved </li></ul>
    25. 26. <ul><li>Ask yourself, </li></ul><ul><li>Can this point be QUANTIFIED? </li></ul>
    26. 29. To describe Movement say … ABC… Stable, level, consistent, constant, stay the same No change Fluctuate, move, peak, flatten out Change Decrease, fall, decline, worsen, go down Downward Increase, climb, rise, improve, go up Upward
    27. 30. 5. Comparison <ul><li>Showing a relationship between things that are changing </li></ul><ul><li>Good vs. bad </li></ul><ul><li>Old vs. new </li></ul><ul><li>Before vs. after </li></ul><ul><li>Higher vs. lower </li></ul>
    28. 31. Comparing facts say … <ul><li>This compares x with y… </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s compare the … </li></ul><ul><li>Here you see a comparison between… </li></ul>ABC…
    29. 32. 6. Metaphor vs. Simile <ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>( A ) is ( B ). </li></ul><ul><li>( A ) substitutes for ( B ). </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>You are my sunshine . </li></ul><ul><li>That salesman is a snake . </li></ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul><ul><li>( A ) is like ( B ). </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Your smile is bright like the sun . </li></ul><ul><li>He is sly like a snake . </li></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><li>Candy for our eyes </li></ul>
    31. 34. Add visual support with Images … <ul><li>Audience will &quot;get it&quot; quickly and clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Three tips </li></ul><ul><li>Make them LARGE </li></ul><ul><li>Less words is more </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly label items </li></ul>
    32. 35. Types of Supporting Images <ul><li>Objects and models </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Lists and tables </li></ul><ul><li>4. Charts and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>5. Videos </li></ul>
    33. 36. Tips on DELIVERING visuals <ul><li>Display visuals only when discussing them </li></ul><ul><li>Remove a visual after discussing it </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure visuals will work in the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Practice using your visual </li></ul>
    34. 37. To introduce a Visual say … <ul><li>I’d like to show you… </li></ul><ul><li>This (graph) shows/ represents… </li></ul><ul><li>Take a look at this… </li></ul><ul><li>Here we can see… </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at this… </li></ul>ABC…
    35. 38. 1. Objects and models <ul><li>Shows the audience the real thing </li></ul><ul><li>Can see, feel and/or hold </li></ul><ul><li>Tip </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pass it around, </li></ul><ul><li>When you’re talking! </li></ul>
    36. 39. Steve Job’s – iPhone <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Historical moments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of pics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demo </li></ul><ul><li>Large visual demo </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Signals  Restates  Quotes  Pic </li></ul>
    37. 40. 2. Photographs <ul><li>Real, emotional example </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize by showing people </li></ul><ul><li>Wake up the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Why tell it, when you can show it </li></ul>
    38. 41. <ul><li>“ Things should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler” </li></ul><ul><li>- Albert Einstein </li></ul>
    39. 42. Where to find Pictures… <ul><li>www.Morguefile.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.sxc.hu </li></ul><ul><li>www.Fotogenika.net </li></ul><ul><li>www.imageafter.com </li></ul><ul><li>Use your own photos!!! </li></ul>
    40. 43. 3. Lists & Tables <ul><li>Numerical evidence organized in Rows & Columns to supports your message </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it: </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Unambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul>
    41. 44. Steve Few on Quantitative display <ul><li>“In our excitement to produce what we could only make before with great effort, many of us have lost sight of the real purpose of quantitative displays … </li></ul>… to provide the reader with important, meaningful, and useful insight.”     
    42. 45. i. Meaningful <ul><li>Reports something important </li></ul><ul><li>Data presented supports your conclusion </li></ul>
    43. 46. ii. Clear – clearly labels <ul><li>Title clearly displayed </li></ul><ul><li>Terms defined (e.g. GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size (hundreds/thousands/millions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dollars (US$, NT$) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage </li></ul></ul>
    44. 47. iii. Efficiency <ul><li>Audience can quickly and easily see your point </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting </li></ul><ul><li>Rounding & Decimal places </li></ul>
    45. 48. a) Sorting Data <ul><li>Descending order of Importance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most important first </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time Tables (months/years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns – sort left to right (past to present) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rows – sort top to bottom (past to present) </li></ul></ul>
    46. 49. Sorting Order <ul><li>Alphabetical </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul>In which 3 countries do children watch the most TV?
    47. 50. Which ordering of the years makes it easier? Calculate % change from year to year.
    48. 51. b) Formatting <ul><li>Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Text – left aligned </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers – right aligned </li></ul><ul><li>Borders </li></ul><ul><li>Underline Columns headers </li></ul>
    49. 52. c) Rounding & Decimal places <ul><li>Limit to the least you need to prove your point </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 significant digits </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>1,051.345 </li></ul><ul><li>1,050.125 </li></ul><ul><li>1,050.130 </li></ul>
    50. 53. 4. Charts & Graphs <ul><li>Visual data that shows change between 2+ items </li></ul><ul><li>i. Significant – choosing the right chart </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Clear - labels </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Efficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Can this information be displayed just as well in text or in a table ?” </li></ul></ul>
    51. 54. ii. Clear chart components <ul><li>Labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining range X and Y axis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphical elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents data </li></ul></ul>
    52. 55. Labels
    53. 56. Scales
    54. 57. Graphical Elements
    55. 58. i. Choosing the right chart <ul><li>a) Pie chart </li></ul><ul><li>b) Bar chart </li></ul><ul><li>c) Time series (line chart) </li></ul>
    56. 59. a) Pie chart <ul><li>Shows % of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Whole must = 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using pie charts </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use 3D pie charts </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t compare multiple pie chart </li></ul>
    57. 60. Pie charts - Formatting <ul><li>Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Sort most important segment at 12 o’clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest to smallest clockwise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Label on each segment (vs. legend) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label % value for each </li></ul></ul>
    58. 61. Steve Job’s - Breaking the Rules Data Distortion – 3D area perceived as larger
    59. 62. Redesign
    60. 63. b) Bar Charts <ul><li>Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use 3-D effects </li></ul><ul><li>Sort by most significant variable </li></ul><ul><li>Place legends inside or below the plot area </li></ul><ul><li>Keep gridlines faint </li></ul>
    61. 64. <ul><li>Which group is this chart highlighting? </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul>
    62. 65. Steve Job’s - Breaking the Rules Data Distortion – 3D area perceived as larger
    63. 66. Redesign
    64. 67. What value does the Y axis scale begin? Steve distorting labels to misrepresent visually
    65. 68. Redesign – visually more realistic Eliminate 3D distortion Reset baseline to 0
    66. 69. c) Time series <ul><li>Tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Time displayed on the X-axis (left to right) </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure different data lines are distinct </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of scaling effects </li></ul>
    67. 71. Scaling Effect <ul><li>When two variables, with a large difference in size, are graphed on the same chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Larger scale appear greater change </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller scale variable appear “flat” </li></ul><ul><li>Tip </li></ul><ul><li>Add a second scale on the right side (Y axis) </li></ul>
    68. 72. Same rate of change but Scaling Effect visually different
    69. 73. Add a Second Scale
    70. 74. Describing numbers say … ABC… 3.246 1 of 4 3.25 24+26=30 75% 3.25 Roughly, almost, about, approximately … Approximation One of every four… Rate Three and a quarter Fraction The total is… The comes to… Total/Sum Seventy-five percent Percentage Three point two five Decimal
    71. 75. Degree of change say… <ul><li>Slight </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual </li></ul>Moderate Steady Significant Dramatic Rapid ABC…
    72. 76. iii. Make all visuals Efficient <ul><li>Audience quickly and easily knows the point </li></ul>
    73. 77. Adding in Noise Presenter Introduction Body Conclusion Message Visual Aids Body Language Audience
    74. 78. Signal-to-Noise Ratio <ul><li>Signal –your message & support info </li></ul><ul><li>Noise – unrelated information </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>100% signal-to-noise ratio </li></ul>
    75. 79. “Chartjunk” is… <ul><li>… a graphic that; </li></ul><ul><li>“ generates a lot of ink that does not tell the viewer anything new.” </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Tufte, </li></ul><ul><li>Yale University </li></ul>
    76. 80. Noise or “Chartjunk” <ul><li>Data Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to explain what the data represents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Distortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misrepresentation of an area, shape, size’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 3D charts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Distraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing attention away from the main point </li></ul></ul>
    77. 81. What is the “chartjunk”?
    78. 86. My list of chart-junk <ul><li>Map of the world </li></ul><ul><li>3-D charts displayed at two different angles </li></ul><ul><li>Country names repeated three times </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are sorted in no apparent order (not even alphabetically) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the letter &quot; I &quot; to separate the countries </li></ul>
    79. 87. Making better visuals <ul><li>Choose the best fitting visual </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize key information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlighting (font size, color, bold, circle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant coding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimize “noise” </li></ul>
    80. 88. “ Every word (data item, graphic, line or symbol) that is unnecessary only pours over the side of a brimming mind.” - Cicero
    81. 89. Review Steps 1, 2 & 3
    82. 90. Presentation Checklist <ul><li>List of steps for a presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Check off completed steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    83. 91. Sneak Peak Step 4
    84. 92. PowerPoint Design <ul><li>Presenting your message visually </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Human processing </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing visual overload </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional presentation </li></ul>

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