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Copy of sdev stylistic differentiation of the english vocabulary Document Transcript

  • 1. Stylistic Differentiation of the English Vocabulary The word-stock of any language may be presented as a system, the elements of which areinterconnected, interrelated and yet independent. Then the word-stock of the English languagemay be divided into three main layers (strata): the literary layer (stratum), the neutral layer, andthe colloquial layer. The literary and the colloquial layers contain a number of subgroups. Eachsubgroup has a property it shares with all the subgroups within the layer. This common propertywhich unites the different groups within the layer is called its aspect. The aspect of the literary layer is its bookish character, which makes the layer more or lessstable. The aspect of the colloquial layer is its lively spoken character, which makes it unstable,fleeting. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character. It can be employed in all styles oflanguage and in all spheres of human activity. This makes the layer the most stable of all. The classification given by I.R.Galperin reflects to a great extent the mobility of the lexicalsystem so characteristic of the English language at its present stage of development. The vocabulary has been divided here into two basic groups: standard and non-standardvocabulary. The diagram on p.2 demonstrates the aforementioned layers and their subgroups. The literary vocabulary consists of the following groups of words: 1. common literary; 2. terms and learned [′ lə:nid] words; 3. poetic words; 4. archaic words; 5. barbarisms and foreign words; 6. literary coinages and nonce-words. The colloquial vocabulary includes the following groups of words: 1. common colloquial words; 2. slang; 3. jargonisms; 4. professionalisms; 5. dialectal words; 6. vulgar words; 7. colloquial coinages. The common literary, neutral and common colloquial words are grouped under the termStandard English Vocabulary. Other groups in the literary and colloquial layers are called special literary (bookish)vocabulary and special (non-standard) colloquial vocabulary. Neutral words Neutral words form the bulk of the English Vocabulary and are used in both literary andcolloquial language. Neutral words are the main source of synonymy and polysemy. Unlike allother groups, neutral words don’t have a special stylistic colouring and are devoid of emotionalmeaning. Common standard literary words Common standard literary words are chiefly used in writing and in polished speech. Theyare used in formal communication. Literary words are mainly observed in the written form. Onecan always tell a literary word from a colloquial word, because literary words are used to satisfy
  • 2. communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages, while colloquial words areemployed in non-official everyday communication. Poetic words Author’s coinages (nonce- words) Archaic and historical words Special literary-bookish vocabulary Barbarisms Terms and Common foreignisms standard-literary vocabulary Common Col..voc. Neutral Words ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Common English voc. ююююю ююю Common standard-colloquial vocabulary ээ Nonce- Professiona- lisms words Special colloquial рр (non-standard) vocabulary Slang Vulgarisms Dialectal Jargonisms words Literary words stand in opposition to colloquial words forming pairs of synonyms whichare based on contrasting relations.Colloquial Neutral Literary kid child infant daddy father parent get out go away retire go on continue proceed 2
  • 3. Common standard colloquial words Common colloquial words are always more emotionally coloured than literary ones. Theyare used in informal communication. Both literary and colloquial words have their upper and lower ranges. The lower range ofliterary words approaches the neutral layer and has a tendency to pass into that layer. The upperrange of the colloquial layer can easily pass into the neutral layer too. The lines of demarcationbetween common colloquial and neutral and common literary and neutral are blurred. Here wemay see the process of interpenetration of the stylistic layers. The stylistic function of thedifferent layers of the English Vocabulary depends in many respects on their interaction whenthey are opposed to one another. It is interesting to note that anything written assumes a greaterdegree of significance than what is only spoken. If the spoken takes the place of the written orvice versa, it means that we are faced with a stylistic device. Special literary-bookish vocabulary 1. Terms and learned words. These are words denoting scientific concepts or objects, processes, phenomena of science,humanities, technique. One of the most characteristic features of a term is its direct relevance to the system ofterms used in a particular science, discipline or art. e.g. power transmission circumference Terms are mostly used in special works dealing with the notions of some branch, thereforeit may be said that they belong to the style of the language of science. But their usage is notconfined to this style. They may appear in other styles, but their function in this case changes:they do not refer to a given concept. In other styles a term may acquire a stylistic function tocreate the environment, the true-to-life atmosphere of the narration, or to make some reference tothe occupation of the character thus creating a particular professional background. A term maybe used with a parodying function contributing to a humorous effect. So when used in the belles-lettres style, a term may become a stylistic device. This happenswhen a term is used in such a way that two meanings are materialized simultaneously. 2. Poetic and highly literary words. Poetic and highly literary words belong to special literary vocabulary. They are mostlyarchaic and aim at producing an elevated effect or giving the work of are a lofty poeticcolouring. Poetic tradition has kept alive such archaic words and forms as follows: poetic neutral woe sorrow quouth speak harken hear speaketh speaks cometh comes brethren brothers wilt 2-nd person singular Poetic words are not freely built. Very often they are built by compounding: e.g. young-eyed, rosy-fingered. 3
  • 4. In the following poem by L. Hughes we may see the examples of poetic style not only inthe choice of word, but also in the compound word. Langston Hughes Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. Poetic words are said to evoke emotive meanings. They colour the utterance with a certainair of loftiness. But very often they become too hackneyed, too stale for this purpose. Poetic words in an ordinary environment may also have a satirical function. 3. Archaic words (obsolescent and obsolete words). The word-stock of any language is in the state of constant change. Words change theirmeaning and sometimes drop out of the language altogether. We shall distinguish 3 stages in the aging process of words. The first stage means the beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarelyused. Such words are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use, and are calledobsolescent [,Cbsə′lesənt] (выходящий из употребления, устаревающий). These aremorphological forms belonging to the earlier stages in the development of the language. Theyare quite easily recognized by the English language community. e.g. thou (ты) thee (тебя, тебе, тобой) thy (твой) -est – thou makest -(e)th – he maketh, speaketh wilt – will Obsolescent words are widely used in poetry as in the following poem by G.G.Byron. G.G. Byron And wilt thou weep when I am low? And wilt thou weep when I am low? Sweet lady! Speak those words again: Yet if they grieve thee, say not so – I would not give that bosom pain. My heart is sad, my hopes are gone, My blood runs coldly through my breast; And when I perish, thou alone Wilt sigh above my place of rest. The second stage of the aging process. Here are included those words that have alreadygone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English speaking community. They arecalled obsolete [′Cbsəli:t] (вышедший из употребления, устаревший). e.g. methinks  it seems to me nay  no whereof  of which The third stage indicates the words which are no longer recognized in Modern English.They are called archaic proper. 4
  • 5. e.g. troth (faith) a losel (a lazy fellow) befall (happen) There are also historical words denoting concepts and phenomena that are out of use inmodern times. They never disappear from the language and have no synonyms, while archaicwords have been replaced by modern synonyms. e.g. knight yeoman spear goblet Historical words are primarily used in the creation of a realistic background of historicalnovels. One of the main functions of archaisms is purely poetic function, when they are used tocreate an elevated effect, or to suit a solemn occasion. It should be mentioned that archaic words are frequently found in the style of officialdocuments. e.g. aforesaid (aforenamed) hereby hereinafter henceforth Their function here is terminological in character. They help to maintain the exactness ofexpression so necessary in this style. When archaic words are used in a depiction of events of present-day life, they assume thefunction of a stylistic device. They may be used for satirical purposes. So, archaisms occurring ininappropriate surroundings are intentionally used by the writer to cause a humorous effect. 4. Barbarisms and foreignisms. Barbarisms are words of foreign origin which have not entirely been assimilated into theEnglish language. They bear the appearance of a borrowing and are felt as something alien to thenative tongue. Most of them have corresponding English synonyms. e.g. chic (stylish) bon mot (a clever witty saying) tête-a tête (face to face) Barbarisms have already become facts of the English language: they are given indictionaries. Foreign words do not belong to the English vocabulary, they are not registered indictionaries. They are generally italicized to indicate their foreign nature or their stylistic value. Very often foreign words fulfill a terminological function. They have no synonyms. e.g. Duma Kandidat blitzkrieg perestroika taiga Both barbarisms and foreign words are used in various styles with various aims. One oftheir functions is to supply local colour, that is to depict local conditions of life, customs andhabits, concrete facts and events and other specific cultural peculiarities. Barbarisms and foreign words very often convey the idea of the foreign origin or culturaland educational status of the personage. 5. Literary coinages and nonce words. This material was given to you in detail at the lecture. 5
  • 6. Political Correctness Negro > coloured > black > African American/Afro-American [негр > цветной > черный> африканский американец/афроамериканец]; Red Indians > Native Americans [краснокожие индейцы > коренные жители] Eskimo - Native Alaskan spokesman [делегат] > spokesperson; cameraman [оператор] > camera operator; foreman [начальник] > supervisor; fireman [пожарник] > fire fighter; postman [почтальон] > mail carrier; businessman [бизнесмен] > executive [исполнительный директор] или параллельно —business woman; stuardess [стюардесса] > flight attendant; chairman [председатель] > chairperson; headmistress [директриса] > headteacher invalid > handicapped > disabled > differently-abled > physically challenged [инвалид > сфизическими/умственными недостатками > покалеченный > с иными возможностями >человек, преодолевающий трудности из-за своего физического состояния]; retarded children > children with learning difficulties [умственно отсталые дети > дети,испытывающие трудности при обучении]; old age pensioners > senior citizens [пожилые пенсионеры > старшие граждане]; poor > disadvantaged > economically disadvantaged [бедные > лишенные возможностей(преимуществ) > экономически ущемленные]; unemployed > unwaged [безработные > не получающие зарплаты]; slums > substandard housing [трущобы > жилье, не отвечающее стандартам]; bin man > refuse collectors [человек, роющийся в помойках > собиратель вещей, откоторых отказались]; natives > indigenious population [местное население > исконное население]; foreigners > aliens, newcomers [иностранцы > незнакомцы; приезжие, нездешние]; foreign languages > modern languages [иностранные языки > современные языки]; short people > vertically challenged people [люди низкого роста > люди,преодолевающие трудности из-за своих вертикальных пропорций]; fat people > horizontally challenged people [полные люди > люди, преодолевающиетрудности из-за своих горизонтальных пропорций]; third world countries > emerging nations[страны третьего мира > возникающие нации]; collateral damage > civilians killed accidentally by military action [сопутствующиепотери > гражданские лица, случайно убитые во время военных действий];killing the enemy > servicing the target [уничтожение врага > попадание в цель] pets [домашние животные], предполагающее человека как хозяина или владельца,заменяется словосочетанием animal companions [компаньоны-животные], house plants > botanical companions [домашние растения > компаньоны-растения], предметы неодушевленного мира — mineral companions [компаньоны-минералы]. the poor - the socially deprived социально обездоленные, the underprivilegedмалопривилегированные, the disadvantages попавшие в менее благоприятныеобстоятельства, low-income people cripple - differently abled, physically different или handicapable fat - big-boned, differently sized, bald - hair-disadvantaged, deaf глухой –aurally inconvenienced, blind слепой – unseeing. 6
  • 7. Умственно отсталых людей называют learning disabled, special, mentally challenged people. insane asylum (больница для душевнобольных) - mental hospital смерть пациента в больнице - terminal episode, therapeutic misadventure, negativepatient care outcome парикмахер - hairstylist или beautician garbage collector (сборщик мусора) - sanitation engineer, эвфемизм environmental hygienist – не что иное, как название дворника (a janitor). capitalism - the system of free enterprising система свободного предпринимательства, open society открытое общество, economic humanism экономический гуманизм. prison - correctional facilities prison guards (тюремные надзиратели) - correctional officers или custodial officers(офицеры охраны). Заключенные - clients of correctional system (клиенты системы исправительныхучреждений), guests гости или people enjoying temporarily hospitality from the state люди,пользующиеся временным гостеприимством у государства. Общую классификацию эвфемизмов по тематическим группам можно представить ввиде таблицы: Тематическая группа эвфемизмов Примеры I. Эвфемизмы, смягчающие различныевиды дискриминации 1) возрастную дискриминацию middlescence, third age, senior, mature 2) имущественную дискриминацию economically exploited, low-income, differently advantaged 3) дискриминацию лиц с физическими physically challenged, handicapable,или умственными недостатками learning disable, special 4) расовую и этническую person of color, member of Africanдискриминацию diaspora, indigenous person II. Эвфемизмы, уменьшающие moonchild, hospice, room ofсуеверный страх перед какими-либо reconciliation, therapeutic misadventureявлениями III. Эвфемизмы, повышающие престиж hairstylist, funeral director, sanitationотдельной профессии engineer, environmental hygienist IV. Эвфемизмы, отвлекающие отнегативных явлений действительности 1) служащие прикрытием агрессивных involvement, device, air support,военных действий pacification, body-count 2) смягчающие негативные period of economic adjustment,последствия в социально-экономической downsizing, negative cash flowсфере 3) связанные с преступностью correctional facilities, custodial officer, client, guest 7
  • 8. 8