Game Based
Organization Design
Jeroen van Bree, PhD (@jeroenvanbree)
European Organisation Design Forum
2013 Vienna Confer...
KPMG INTERNATIONAL

Confronting Complexity

Managing complexity
is important to my
company’s success

Research Findings an...
Stand out in a complex world

Figure 5

Capitalizing
on Complexity

The complexity gap
While eight out of ten CEOs anticip...
Volume 16(2): 227–247
ISSN 1350–5084
Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications
(Los Angeles, London, New Delhi,
Singapore and Was...
Volume 16(2): 227–247
ISSN 1350–5084
Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications
(Los Angeles, London, New Delhi,
Singapore and Was...
Volume 16(2): 227–247
ISSN 1350–5084
Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications
(Los Angeles, London, New Delhi,
Singapore and Was...
Games_
Games
Play_
Games
Play
RUles_
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design_
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
1972
http://www.newzoo.com/infographics/infographic-2012-uk/
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
Michael L. Baird, flickr.bairdphotos.com
‘ordered play is not play’
Mandatory Fun: Gamification and the
Impact of Games at Work

Ethan  Mollick*
Nancy  Rothbard*
Management  Department,  The...
Drawing on several theoretical perspectives, we argue that the impact of games is due to
their ability to engage workers w...
‘play is not real life’
Playing a game is the voluntary
effort to overcome unnecessary
obstacles.
- Bernard Suits
Fevi in Pictures
lusory attitude
http://hbr.org/2004/05/learning-to-lead-at-toyota/ar/1
஽ Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2011, Vol. 10, No. 3, 507–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0048

......
lusory space
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
Playing a game is the voluntary
effort to overcome unnecessary
obstacles.
- Bernard Suits
the spoilsport
the cheat
gaming the system
‘these are the rules’
design flaw
lusory space

gaming the system
rules
game play
rules
game play
declarative content
rules
simple rules
complex game play
simple rules
Tristan Martin
descriptive rules
prescriptive rules
http://hbr.org/2001/01/strategy-as-simple-rules/ar/1
circumscriptive rules
Space of
Possibilities
lusory space

gaming the system

underspecification
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
Games
Play
Rules
Game Based Organization Design
http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?id=1448
A primary danger in
designing is overdesign.
Life persists when designs
are underspecified.
- Karl E. Weick
game design
declarative content
game play
declarative content
game play
declarative content
rules
game play

rules
test

game play

rules
test

game play

adjust
rules
Second-order Design
test

game play

adjust
rules
© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
paper prototype

© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
playtesting

© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
Second-order Design
test

gameplay

adjust
rules
game design
game based organization design
Rules
© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
© 2012 Eric Zimmerman
Space of
Possibilities
lusory space

gaming the system

underspecification
co-creation
organizational
designer
co-designers
organizational
designer
stakeholders
co-designers
organizational
designer
co-designers

all stakeholders

organizational
designer
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
corporate strategy
corporate strategy

rule set

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype
corporate strategy

rule set

new structures
& processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype
corporate strategy

rule set

new structures
& processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype

change
management
tool for training or change management
tool for training or change management

design tool
tool for training or change management

game is finished product

design tool
tool for training or change management

design tool

game is finished product

game is paper prototype,
conduit for unders...
tool for training or change management

design tool

game is finished product

game is paper prototype,
conduit for unders...
tool for training or change management

design tool

game is finished product

game is paper prototype,
conduit for unders...
tool for training or change management

design tool

game is finished product

game is paper prototype,
conduit for unders...
tool for training or change management

design tool

game is finished product

game is paper prototype,
conduit for unders...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework
How can we encourage our clients
to adopt a healthy lifestyle?
How can we encourage our clients
to adopt a healthy lifestyle?
what does our strategic vision mean for our
business processes and structures?
what does our strategic vision mean for our
business processes and structures?
what should our way of working look like as...
what does our strategic vision mean for our
business processes and structures?
what should our way of working look like as...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

filling out the framework
lusory space

gaming the system

emergence
• 3 forms of healthy behavior
• 7 stakeholders on this playing field
• 10 indicators of a healthy lifestyle
• 60 reasons no...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

filling out the framework
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
lusory space

gaming the system

emergence
corporate strategy

rule set

new structures
& processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype

change
management
co-designers

all stakeholders

organizational
designer
co-designers

all stakeholders

35 interventions

organizational
designer
co-designers

all stakeholders

35 interventions

organizational
designer
15 interventions
co-designers

all stakeholders

35 interventions

organizational
designer
15 interventions

2 interventions
corporate strategy

rule set

new structures
& processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype

change
management
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
co-designers

setting goals and
establishing framework

all stakeholders
filling out the framework
envisioning core
mechan...
corporate strategy

rules

new structures &
processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype

change
management
corporate strategy

rules

new structures &
processes

peripheral
strategy

paper
prototype

change
management
Game Based
Organization Design
Jeroen van Bree, PhD (@jeroenvanbree)
European Organisation Design Forum
2013 Vienna Confer...
You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions:
Attribution
You must attribute the ...
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013
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Game Based Organization Design EODF Vienna 11 October 2013

  1. 1. Game Based Organization Design Jeroen van Bree, PhD (@jeroenvanbree) European Organisation Design Forum 2013 Vienna Conference
  2. 2. KPMG INTERNATIONAL Confronting Complexity Managing complexity is important to my company’s success Research Findings and Insights 94% 6% kpmg.com SECTORS AND THEMES MAY 2011 Title set in univers 65 bold 33pt on 36pt leading, white Increasing complexity is one of the biggest challenges my company faces 70% 0 20 Agree 30% 40 60 Disagree Source: KPMG International, 2010 Additional infor Univers 45 light 12pt on16pt leading kpmg.com Credits and authors in Univers 45 light 12 pt on14 pt leading http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/complexity-research-report.pdf 80 100
  3. 3. Stand out in a complex world Figure 5 Capitalizing on Complexity The complexity gap While eight out of ten CEOs anticipate significant complexity ahead, less than half feel prepared to handle it. Expect high/very high level of complexit ears 79% Feel prepared for expected complexity 49% 30% complexity gap Insights from the Global Chief Executive Officer Study Learning from top performers “Really, I am not af complexity at all. O this just motivates Jacques Pellas, http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/ceo/ceostudy2010/
  4. 4. Volume 16(2): 227–247 ISSN 1350–5084 Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC) Exploring the Edges of Theory-Practice Gap: Epistemic Cultures in Strategy-Tool Development and Use Johanna Moisander Helsinki School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Management, Helsinki, Finland Sari Stenfors SCANCOR, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract. This paper takes a strategy-as-practice perspective on the study of strategy tools and the theory-practice gap in strategic management research. Based on a case study, the paper argues that differences in epistemic culture may complicate communication and co-operation between academics and practitioners. These differences may also result in management scholars producing knowledge and strategy tools that lack practical pertinence for corporate actors, particularly in the context of modernist management scholars and contemporary post-bureaucratic knowledge organizations (PBOs). In PBOs, where flexibility, participative management style and consensus building dialogue are emphasized, modernist strategy tools designed for rational problem solving by individual decision-makers may be inadequate. In PBOs, practical strategy work calls for tools that support collective knowledge production, promote dialogue and trust, and function as learning tools. Overall, the paper concludes that the development of strategy tools that actually support practical strategizing calls for a more social model of knowledge and strategy work. Key words. epistemic culture; management tools; sociology of technology; strategic management; strategy as practice DOI: 10.1177/1350508408100476 http://org.sagepub.com http://org.sagepub.com/content/16/2/227.short
  5. 5. Volume 16(2): 227–247 ISSN 1350–5084 Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC) Exploring the Edges of Theory-Practice Gap: Epistemic Cultures in Strategy-Tool Development and Use Johanna Moisander Helsinki School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Management, Helsinki, Finland Sari Stenfors Tools designed for rational problem solving by individual decisionmakers SCANCOR, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract. This paper takes a strategy-as-practice perspective on the study of strategy tools and the theory-practice gap in strategic management research. Based on a case study, the paper argues that differences in epistemic culture may complicate communication and co-operation between academics and practitioners. These differences may also result in management scholars producing knowledge and strategy tools that lack practical pertinence for corporate actors, particularly in the context of modernist management scholars and contemporary post-bureaucratic knowledge organizations (PBOs). In PBOs, where flexibility, participative management style and consensus building dialogue are emphasized, modernist strategy tools designed for rational problem solving by individual decision-makers may be inadequate. In PBOs, practical strategy work calls for tools that support collective knowledge production, promote dialogue and trust, and function as learning tools. Overall, the paper concludes that the development of strategy tools that actually support practical strategizing calls for a more social model of knowledge and strategy work. Key words. epistemic culture; management tools; sociology of technology; strategic management; strategy as practice DOI: 10.1177/1350508408100476 http://org.sagepub.com http://org.sagepub.com/content/16/2/227.short
  6. 6. Volume 16(2): 227–247 ISSN 1350–5084 Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC) Exploring the Edges of Theory-Practice Gap: Epistemic Cultures in Strategy-Tool Development and Use Johanna Moisander Tools that support collective knowledge production, promote dialogue and trust, and function as learning tools Helsinki School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Management, Helsinki, Finland Sari Stenfors Tools designed for rational problem solving by individual decisionmakers SCANCOR, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract. This paper takes a strategy-as-practice perspective on the study of strategy tools and the theory-practice gap in strategic management research. Based on a case study, the paper argues that differences in epistemic culture may complicate communication and co-operation between academics and practitioners. These differences may also result in management scholars producing knowledge and strategy tools that lack practical pertinence for corporate actors, particularly in the context of modernist management scholars and contemporary post-bureaucratic knowledge organizations (PBOs). In PBOs, where flexibility, participative management style and consensus building dialogue are emphasized, modernist strategy tools designed for rational problem solving by individual decision-makers may be inadequate. In PBOs, practical strategy work calls for tools that support collective knowledge production, promote dialogue and trust, and function as learning tools. Overall, the paper concludes that the development of strategy tools that actually support practical strategizing calls for a more social model of knowledge and strategy work. Key words. epistemic culture; management tools; sociology of technology; strategic management; strategy as practice DOI: 10.1177/1350508408100476 http://org.sagepub.com http://org.sagepub.com/content/16/2/227.short
  7. 7. Games_
  8. 8. Games Play_
  9. 9. Games Play RUles_
  10. 10. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design_
  11. 11. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  12. 12. 1972
  13. 13. http://www.newzoo.com/infographics/infographic-2012-uk/
  14. 14. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  15. 15. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  16. 16. Michael L. Baird, flickr.bairdphotos.com
  17. 17. ‘ordered play is not play’
  18. 18. Mandatory Fun: Gamification and the Impact of Games at Work Ethan  Mollick* Nancy  Rothbard* Management  Department,  The  Wharton  School University  of  Pennsylvania June  5,  2013 PRELIMINARY  DRAFT  SUBJECT  TO  CHANGE *Authorship order is alphabetical as both authors contributed equally to this manuscript. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2277103 Note: We thank Sigal Barsade, Matthew Bidwell, and Adam Grant, for their helpful comments
  19. 19. Drawing on several theoretical perspectives, we argue that the impact of games is due to their ability to engage workers who consent to play the game. However, the externally imposed exploring these questions in an organization, rather than a lab setting, allows us to make stronger nature of gamification makes it vulnerable to the paradox of mandatory fun, where games that inferences about how these initiatives influence people at work. CONCLUSION are imposed by management require worker consent in a way that games generated organically Drawing on several theoretical perspectives, we argue that the impact of games is due to their ability to engage workers who consent to play the game. However, the externally imposed by workers do not. In our field experiment, we find that games, when consented to, increase nature of gamification makes it vulnerable to the paradox of mandatory fun, where games that are imposed by management require worker consent in a way that games generated organically positive affect at work, but, when consent is lacking, decrease positive affect and performance. by workers do not. In our field experiment, we find that games, when consented to, increase positive affect at work, but, when consent is lacking, decrease positive affect and performance. This work offers a first attemptattemptmeasure impact of the type of games the type of games imposed by This work offers a first to to measure the the impact of imposed by management on employees, and to theorize about the role of games at work. With the increasing management on employees,ofand in all aspects of life, and the harnessing of games at of games at work. With the increasing ubiquity games to theorize about the role work through gamification, this topic will only grow in importance. Future studies are needed to understand the ubiquity of games in all aspects of life, and the harnessing of gameselucidate boundary conditions under which workplace games produce their effects, and to further at work through the mechanisms through which games generate engagement. However, our findings serve as both gamification, this topicencouragement and agrowfor those using games to generate changes in employee affectare needed to understand the will only warning in importance. Future studies or performance: games can have powerful effects that can be either positive or negative, depending boundary conditions underunderlying consent of the game players. which workplace games produce their effects, and to further elucidate on the the mechanisms through which games generate engagement. However, our findings serve as both encouragement and a warning for those using games to generate changes in employee affect or performance: games can have powerful effects that can be either positive or negative, depending 32 on the underlying consent of the game players.
  20. 20. ‘play is not real life’
  21. 21. Playing a game is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles. - Bernard Suits
  22. 22. Fevi in Pictures
  23. 23. lusory attitude
  24. 24. http://hbr.org/2004/05/learning-to-lead-at-toyota/ar/1
  25. 25. ஽ Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2011, Vol. 10, No. 3, 507–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0048 ........................................................................................................................................................................ http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1838283 Games Managers Play: Play as a Form of Leadership Development RONIT KARK Bar-Ilan University In recent years, organizations have expended considerable effort and resources to develop and improve managers’ leadership skills through various forms of play. I explore the role of play in leadership development processes. Drawing on theories of leader and leadership development and theories of play, I develop a conceptual framework, suggesting that play can contribute to different components of leader and leadership development processes (i.e., leadership identity, cognitive abilities, and behavioral skills). Furthermore, the role of creating safe play spaces in leadership development processes is highlighted. The discussion examines the implications and applications of play for leadership development processes, points to the dangers of misuse of play, and outlines directions for further empirical research. The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0953-4814.htm ........................................................................................................................................................................ “At some point as we get older . . . we are made to feel guilty for playing. We are told that it is unproductive, a waste of time, even sinful. The play that remains is, like league sports, mostly very organized, rigid, and competitive. We strive to always be productive. This is not the case. . . the truth is that in most cases, play is a catalyst. The beneficial effects of getting just a little true play can spread through our lives, usually making us more productive and happier in everything we do” (Brown, 2009). focus on ways to develop individuals’ capacity to engage effectively in leadership roles (e.g., Day & Zaccaro, 2004; McCall, 2004). This has resulted in various methods, training programs, and workshops designed for this purpose. Many organizations view leadership development as a major source of sustainable competitive advantage and place leadership development at the core of their corporate culture (McCall & Hollenbeck, 2002). Leadership development programs and processes have become instrumental in many organizations, and they have fostered an industry that generates vast sums of capital and offers a broad range of possibilities (e.g., Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003; Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2001). Over the past decade, research attention has been devoted to the theory and practice of leadership development (e.g., Avolio & Hannah, 2008; Collins & Holton, 2004; Day, Zaccaro, & Halpin, 2004; DeRue & Ashford, 2010). The general consensus is that different managerial populations need different kinds of learning opportunities, but little theoretical and empirical guidance exists to help practitioners and HR personnel select or combine methods that are best suited to each group (Guillen & Ibarra, 2009). Some leadership development programs consist of experiences that span just a few hours, while others may last several days, or even take the form of extended seminars. In addition, the nature of “A child in play acts ‘as though he were a head taller than himself’” (Vygotsky, 1978: 102). In recent years, organizations have expended a great deal of effort and resources in an attempt to teach managers how to lead (e.g., Industry reports, 2000). Recent approaches to leadership challenge the notion that individuals are born as leaders and I am grateful to Irit Feldman-Levy for her meaningful and creative contribution to this paper and to Sim Sitkin and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback. I thank Moran Anisman, Tal Ben Shahar, Yair Berson, Avi Carmeli, Jacob Eisenberg, Shaul Fox, and Rivka Tuval Mashiach for their helpful comments on earlier versions. I also thank my children— Omer, Ofri, & Clil for reminding me of the importance and enjoyment of play. JOCM 23,1 A case study of a ludic learning space Alice Y. Kolb and David A. Kolb 26 Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose an experiential learning framework for understanding how play can potentially create a unique ludic learning space conducive to deep learning. Design/methodology/approach – The framework is developed by integrating two perspectives. First, from multidisciplinary theories of play to uncover the underlying play principles that contribute to the emergence of the ludic learning space are drawn. Then the formation of a ludic learning space through a case study of a pick-up softball league where for 15 years, a group of individuals diverse in age group, gender, level of education, and ethnic background have come together to play are examined. Findings – The case study suggests that play in a ludic learning space can promote deep learning in the intellectual, physical, spiritual, and moral realms. Originality/value – This paper uses the play literature to inform the experiential learning concept of the learning space. Keywords Experiential learning, Learning processes, Ball games Paper type Case study 507 Copyright of the Academy of Management, all rights reserved. Contents may not be copied, emailed, posted to a listserv, or otherwise transmitted without the copyright holder’s express written permission. Users may print, download, or email articles for individual use only. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67074189/gamesmanagers-play-play-as-form-leadership-development Learning to play, playing to learn Journal of Organizational Change Management Vol. 23 No. 1, 2010 pp. 26-50 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0953-4814 DOI 10.1108/09534811011017199 1. Introduction The cultural historian, Huzinga (1950) contends that from the very beginning, cultures evolved in forms of play. The instinct of play pervades all human endeavors: in law, science, war, philosophy, and in the arts. Through the eyes of Huizinga, humans emerge not as Homo sapiens, the man who knows, but primarily as Homo Ludens, the man who plays. Play encompasses a wide range of activities and forms both in human and animal world. From the play-fight of kittens, imaginary play of a child, to the more abstract play of adult games and organized sports, it permeates our lives as a significant source of creativity, imagination, and fun. While play has undoubtedly been a unique and universal human experience across cultures, it has also been the subject of scholarly inquiry across diverse fields of social science with a substantial accumulation of theoretical and empirical evidence about its significance in the process of individual expression and adaptation (Callois, 2001; Dewey, 1990; Erikson, 1950; Freud, 1965; Gadamer, 1992; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006; Miller, 1974; Piaget, 1962; Sutton-Smith, 1997; Turner, 1974; Vygotsky, 1966; Winnicott, 1971). Recently, Singer et al. (2006) emphasized the importance of play in human cognitive and social-emotional growth by issuing the bold statement that play ¼ learning. While play has been characterized as “older and more original than civilization” Huizinga (1950, p. 1) and has been defined as a distinct form of behavior possessing serious biological, developmental, functional, and evolutionary implications in animal life (Bekoff and Byers, 1998; Darwin, 1965, 1981; Fagen, 1981, 1984, 1994; Goodall, 1995; Groos, 1898; Lorenz, 1971) in reality, play has been devalued and continues to be squeezed out of our formal educational institutions under the misguided view that
  26. 26. lusory space
  27. 27. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  28. 28. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  29. 29. Playing a game is the voluntary effort to overcome unnecessary obstacles. - Bernard Suits
  30. 30. the spoilsport
  31. 31. the cheat
  32. 32. gaming the system
  33. 33. ‘these are the rules’
  34. 34. design flaw
  35. 35. lusory space gaming the system
  36. 36. rules
  37. 37. game play rules
  38. 38. game play declarative content rules
  39. 39. simple rules
  40. 40. complex game play simple rules
  41. 41. Tristan Martin
  42. 42. descriptive rules
  43. 43. prescriptive rules
  44. 44. http://hbr.org/2001/01/strategy-as-simple-rules/ar/1
  45. 45. circumscriptive rules
  46. 46. Space of Possibilities
  47. 47. lusory space gaming the system underspecification
  48. 48. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  49. 49. Games Play Rules Game Based Organization Design
  50. 50. http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?id=1448
  51. 51. A primary danger in designing is overdesign. Life persists when designs are underspecified. - Karl E. Weick
  52. 52. game design
  53. 53. declarative content
  54. 54. game play declarative content
  55. 55. game play declarative content rules
  56. 56. game play rules
  57. 57. test game play rules
  58. 58. test game play adjust rules
  59. 59. Second-order Design test game play adjust rules
  60. 60. © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  61. 61. paper prototype © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  62. 62. © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  63. 63. playtesting © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  64. 64. Second-order Design test gameplay adjust rules
  65. 65. game design
  66. 66. game based organization design
  67. 67. Rules
  68. 68. © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  69. 69. © 2012 Eric Zimmerman
  70. 70. Space of Possibilities
  71. 71. lusory space gaming the system underspecification
  72. 72. co-creation
  73. 73. organizational designer
  74. 74. co-designers organizational designer
  75. 75. stakeholders co-designers organizational designer
  76. 76. co-designers all stakeholders organizational designer
  77. 77. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules obtaining additional information playtesting, round 2
  78. 78. corporate strategy
  79. 79. corporate strategy rule set peripheral strategy paper prototype
  80. 80. corporate strategy rule set new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype
  81. 81. corporate strategy rule set new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype change management
  82. 82. tool for training or change management
  83. 83. tool for training or change management design tool
  84. 84. tool for training or change management game is finished product design tool
  85. 85. tool for training or change management design tool game is finished product game is paper prototype, conduit for understanding
  86. 86. tool for training or change management design tool game is finished product game is paper prototype, conduit for understanding players are not involved in design of game
  87. 87. tool for training or change management design tool game is finished product game is paper prototype, conduit for understanding players are not involved in design of game game is co-created
  88. 88. tool for training or change management design tool game is finished product game is paper prototype, conduit for understanding players are not involved in design of game game is co-created detailed representation
  89. 89. tool for training or change management design tool game is finished product game is paper prototype, conduit for understanding players are not involved in design of game game is co-created detailed representation abstract representation (rules), complexity comes from players
  90. 90. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework
  91. 91. How can we encourage our clients to adopt a healthy lifestyle?
  92. 92. How can we encourage our clients to adopt a healthy lifestyle?
  93. 93. what does our strategic vision mean for our business processes and structures?
  94. 94. what does our strategic vision mean for our business processes and structures? what should our way of working look like as our start-up company grows?
  95. 95. what does our strategic vision mean for our business processes and structures? what should our way of working look like as our start-up company grows? how can we achieve the goals we have with our IT community?
  96. 96. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework
  97. 97. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework filling out the framework
  98. 98. lusory space gaming the system emergence
  99. 99. • 3 forms of healthy behavior • 7 stakeholders on this playing field • 10 indicators of a healthy lifestyle • 60 reasons not to adopt a healthy lifestyle • 75 drivers for a healthy lifestyle
  100. 100. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework filling out the framework
  101. 101. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms
  102. 102. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms
  103. 103. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer
  104. 104. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer
  105. 105. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules
  106. 106. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules obtaining additional information
  107. 107. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules obtaining additional information playtesting, round 2
  108. 108. lusory space gaming the system emergence
  109. 109. corporate strategy rule set new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype change management
  110. 110. co-designers all stakeholders organizational designer
  111. 111. co-designers all stakeholders 35 interventions organizational designer
  112. 112. co-designers all stakeholders 35 interventions organizational designer 15 interventions
  113. 113. co-designers all stakeholders 35 interventions organizational designer 15 interventions 2 interventions
  114. 114. corporate strategy rule set new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype change management
  115. 115. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules obtaining additional information playtesting, round 2
  116. 116. co-designers setting goals and establishing framework all stakeholders filling out the framework envisioning core mechanisms building paper prototype organizational designer playtesting, round 1: adding rules obtaining additional information playtesting, round 2 re-design organizational system
  117. 117. corporate strategy rules new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype change management
  118. 118. corporate strategy rules new structures & processes peripheral strategy paper prototype change management
  119. 119. Game Based Organization Design Jeroen van Bree, PhD (@jeroenvanbree) European Organisation Design Forum 2013 Vienna Conference
  120. 120. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions: Attribution You must attribute the work to the presenter by mentioning his website, http://movablemind.com (but not in any way that suggests that he endorses you or your use of the work). Noncommercial You may not use this work for commercial purposes. No derivative works You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.

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