Ten Best Practices for Teaching Online. Designing and Teaching Online Learning. J.Boettcher


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Ten Best Practices for Teaching Online. Slides from 2011 Distance Learning conference in Madison WI August 3 2011. Orientation session Panel with Judith Boettcher

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  • Ten Best Practices for Teaching Online. Designing and Teaching Online Learning. J.Boettcher

    1. 1. 27th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning<br />August 3 - 5 2011<br />Ten Best Practices — A Quick Guide for Teaching Great Courses Online<br />Judith V. Boettcher <br />Designing for Learning<br />University of Florida<br />judith@designingforlearning.org<br />1<br />2011<br />
    2. 2. 2011<br />2<br />PRESENCE<br />COMMUNITY<br />PERSONALIZATION<br />As in Vygotsky’s ZPD<br />
    3. 3. But, how will I “talk” to them? <br />Do I really need to be on my course site every day? <br />How do I know if they understand? <br />But wait, I didn’t really mean that I would teach online <br />“Help!” said with quiet desperation…<br />
    4. 4. 2011<br />4<br />Where did the Best Practices Come From? <br />Community of Inquiry model Social, Teaching and Cognitive Presence <br />Community of learners <br />Idea of a University<br />Garrison, Anderson, Archer, Swan, others<br />John Henry Newman<br />Instructional design and learning theory How People Learn reports<br />Research on dialogue and communication Discussion as a way of teaching<br />Bransford, Brown and Cocking<br />Learner-centered Teaching…<br />Brookfield and Preskill<br />Maryellen Weimer<br />
    5. 5. Inspirations of Ten Learning Principles<br />2011<br />5<br />Constructivism and active learning <br />Zone of Proximal Development<br />Lev Vygotsky <br />Daniel Schacter<br />Jerome Bruner<br />Memory<br />Experiential personalized learning<br />Cognitive apprenticeship<br />John Dewey<br />John Seely Brown<br />
    6. 6. TEN BEST PRACTICES<br />2011<br />6<br />
    7. 7. 2011<br />7<br />Yes, every day! <br />But you can “fence” that time… <br />Be Present at the Course Site<br />Best Practice 1<br />
    8. 8. 2011<br />8<br />“Is anyone out there?”<br />
    9. 9. The “Three Presences” <br />The Three Presences based on Online Collaboration Principles by D. R. Garrison (2006) and article by Garrison, Anderson and Archer (2000) <br />2011<br />9<br />Social Presence <br />Teaching Presence <br />Cognitive Presence<br />
    10. 10. 2011<br />10<br />Social Presence - Faculty <br />Being a person, being "real" to your learners<br />Social presence - the ability to project oneself socially and affectively in a virtual environment<br />Some Ideas<br />Picture — in context <br />Short bio <br />Favorite food<br />Interesting stories <br />How do you “make yourself known” to your students? As an expert, as a mentor, as a 3D person?<br />
    11. 11. First Week Forum: Social Presence and Trust among Learners<br />Getting acquainted postings <br />“My favorite movie, or book, or meditation or relaxation is….” <br />Post one/more of their favorite pictures<br />Pix of where they study/work/learn<br />Describe their morning commute.. :-) <br />Significant/favorite life experience related to the course <br />11<br />Useful in launching a “quick trust” among learners<br />Elevator, cocktail openings, but deeper<br />Chihuly Glass room at MFA last week<br />
    12. 12. Teaching Presence 1– What you do before the course… <br />Syllabus<br />Assessment plan with assignments and rubrics<br />Course framework and communication plan<br />Mini-lectures, concept intros with text, YouTube videos, podcasts <br />Forum questions <br />Project descriptions <br />Core, recommended and personal choice resources<br />Week-by-week schedule<br />2011<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Teaching Presence 2– Suggesting, Guiding, Challenging Showing the Way <br />Group presences <br />Announcements, reminders, guideposts <br />Supportive, monitoring, questioning, affirming comments in the discussions and forums and blogs etc. <br />Q&A sessions<br />Individual presence <br />Encouraging and shaping of individual and small team projects <br />Individual feedback, support as may be appropriate <br />2011<br />13<br />Three presences “ebb and flow” over a course (Akyol and Garrison, 2008) <br />Note: "Teaching Presence" refers to the design, direction, facilitation and feedback, from a faculty in a course. <br />
    14. 14. Cognitive Presence<br />Cognitive Presence - “Construction of meaning through sustained communication in a climate of trust.” <br />2011<br />14<br />What are the zones, readiness points of your students? <br />Not just “turn-taking” in the forums, but a give and take conversation<br />
    15. 15. First Week Forum: Cognitive Presence <br />Customize learning goals <br />Do I understand the learning outcomes of the course? <br />What do the learning outcomes mean to me? <br />How do I think that I will use the knowledge, skills, perspectives now and in the future?<br />Arthur was preparing to become King.<br />How will I personalize the learning outcomes? <br />When I talk with my friends, family and other folks, how can I share what I am doing? <br />15<br />Who am I as a learner and why am I here?<br />
    16. 16. 2011<br />16<br />Best Practice 2<br />Create a Supportive Online Course Community<br />
    17. 17. Balanced Dialogue Helps to Build Community <br />2011<br />17<br />Too much faculty talk and direction <br />Balanced communication of dialogue of mentor to learner, peer to peer and learner to resource<br />
    18. 18. Members of a Community… <br />“Share common joys and trials”(C. Dede, 1996)<br />Share a sense of belonging, of continuity, of being connected to others and to ideas and values (T. J. Sergiovanni, 1994)<br />Act within a climate of justice, discipline, caring, and occasions for celebration" (E. Boyer,1995)<br />2011<br />18<br />Members of a learning community care about each other and their learning successes<br />
    19. 19. 2011<br />19<br />Where do I start? What do I do now? What do I do next? <br />Best Practice 3<br />Develop a set of clear expectations<br />
    20. 20. Best Practice 3: Develop a Set of Clear Expectations<br />How you will communicate, how often and response times and methods <br />How learners should be communicating and participating <br />How much time do you design for learners to be “engaged” in content every week? <br />Weekly guide and overview<br />What is your "weekly rhythm?" <br />2011<br />20<br />Are rubrics clear and purposeful? <br />Is 6 hours a week enough?<br />
    21. 21. 2011<br />21<br />Best Practice 4<br />Design in a variety of learning experiences<br />
    22. 22. Include Individual, Small and Large Group Learning Activities<br />Online courses can be isolating and overwhelming <br />Design opportunities for students to brainstorm and work through concepts and assignments with one or two or more fellow students.<br />Small teams for complex case studies or scenarios <br />Expert events make for great large group activities <br />2011<br />22<br />
    23. 23. 2011<br />23<br />Best Practice 5<br />Design for synchronous and asynchronous experiences <br />
    24. 24. 2011<br />24<br />Best Practice 6<br />Ask for Informal Feedback Early <br />
    25. 25. Such as…<br />How is course going? <br />What would help you if it were different? <br />Invite suggestions, observations<br />How early is early? <br />15% of the way in to the course, second week of 15 week course<br />Avoids problems of "postmortem" evaluations and "If I had only known!" <br />2011<br />25<br />“I didn’t know that anyone cared.” <br />
    26. 26. 2011<br />26<br />Best Practice 7<br />Prepare Inviting, Challenging Discussion Posts <br />
    27. 27. Characteristics of Great Posting Questions <br />Encourage exploration and research <br />Encourage links to local, regional, personal life experiences<br /> Socratic-type probing and follow-up questions<br />Why do you think that? <br />What is your reasoning? <br />Is there an alternative strategy? <br />Ask clarifying questions that encourage students to think about what they know and don't know<br />2011<br />27<br />A high priority “online skill” <br />
    28. 28. End of Week Discussion “Wraps” <br />Discussion wraps aid reflecting and pruning processes of learning <br />Students might otherwise drift with questions such as …<br />What was that all about?<br />Where has this conversation taken me? Taken our group?<br />What have I learned? What do I know now that I did not know before?<br />Have I changed how I think about these ideas or problem? <br />What does our faculty leader think? Students want to know. <br />2011<br />28<br />
    29. 29. Best Practice 8<br />2011<br />29<br />Design for Digital Resources and Tools for Core Concepts and Experiences <br />"If content and tools are not digital, it is as if it does not exist for today’s learners"<br />
    30. 30. Why Digital Resources, Tools Are Essential…<br />Visualize where learners are going to be…they can be anywhere, anytime and often while they are doing other things<br />Learners want to be creative, such as making movies, podcasts, research, collect data<br />Design for learners to research and identify resources that support learning of core concepts — for themselves and others <br />2011<br />30<br />
    31. 31. 2011<br />31<br />“I think I can…I think I can…<br />Best Practice 9<br />Combine Core Concepts with Customized Learning <br />
    32. 32. Four Layers of Content<br />Core Concepts <br />and Principles<br />Core Concepts <br />and Principles<br />Applying Core Concepts<br />Problem Analysis and Solving<br />Customized and Personalized<br />32<br />2011<br />
    33. 33. 2011<br />33<br />Best Practice 10<br />Plan a Good Closing and Wrap for Your Course<br />
    34. 34. Wrapping Up <br /><ul><li>Reflection activities
    35. 35. Project sharing “beyond the course”
    36. 36. Summarize/Debrief
    37. 37. Concept mapping captures course content
    38. 38. Look to the future – what might work better?
    39. 39. Agree on “Big Ideas, Big Connections”
    40. 40. Celebrate!</li></ul>2011<br />34<br />
    41. 41. Conclusion Very Important Guideline<br />2011<br />35<br />In course design, we design for the probable, expected learner; in course delivery, we flex the design to the specific, particular learners within a course.<br />“I really enjoyed the project and how my teacher supported me in doing what was important for me personally.”<br />
    42. 42. 36<br />Class of 2027<br />Class of 2025<br />Presence, Community and Personalization<br />More resources …www.designingforlearning.info/services/writing/ecoach/tenbest.html<br />judith@designingforlearning.org<br />jboettcher@comcast.net<br />