Knowledge Management 2009 (4)


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Knowledge Management 2009 (4)

  1. 1. Knowledge Management 2009 Course 4 Tim Hoogenboom & Bolke de Bruin
  2. 2. Contents of Today <ul><li>Recapitulating last week </li></ul><ul><li>Something on Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice, Boundaries and Locality </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of Practice Based Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wrapping it up
  4. 4. Design in a nutshell <ul><li>Design organizations as architectures for learning </li></ul><ul><li>We have four design interventions (areas of influence) we need to balance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning, Time, Space, Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As to learning, organizations consist of 3 infrastructures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement, Imagination, Alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructures are specific interventions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Difficulties Design <ul><li>Design as a craft (ask any artisan) </li></ul><ul><li>Design by drawing (ask any engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Design as a process (ask program manager) </li></ul><ul><li>Design without a product (who should we ask… You?) </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight: If we had known at the start what we know now we’d never designed it like this (p.xxv) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Design Interventions
  7. 7. Designing for Participation Learning can’t be designed – it can only be frustrated or facilitated
  8. 8. A Design Framework Standards, shared infrastructures, centers of authority Models, maps, representations, visits, tours Multi-membership, brokering, peripherality, conversations LOCAL/ GLOBAL Inspirations, fields of influence, reciprocity of power relations New trajectories, empathy, stereotypes, explanations Mutuality through shared action, situated negotiation, marginalization IDENTIFICATION/ NEGOTIABILITY Communication, feedback, coordination, renegotiation, realignment Scenarios, possible worlds, simulations, perceiving new broad patterns Situated improvisation within a regime of mutual accountability DESIGNED/ EMERGENT Styles and discourses Stories, playing with forms, recombinations, assumptions Combining them meaningfully in actions, interactions and creation of shared histories PARTICIPATION/ REIFICATION ALIGNMENT IMAGINATION ENGAGEMENT
  9. 9. Practice
  10. 10. Community of Practice <ul><li>Communities of practice are social configurations that support learning, by facilitating practices that reflect the pursuit of a shared enterprise and social relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Practices have no agency on their own, yet practices connote doing, and by this doing members’ practices help them in ordering their social context </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are a new mode of organizing between the market and the hierarchy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Practice <ul><li>Practice is the source of coherence for a community (of practice), thereby it differs from interest groups, belief groups, cultures etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice is about the negotiation of meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation is the process of taking part and also to the relation with others that reflect this process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reification is treating an abstraction as substantially existing or as a concrete object. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Community <ul><li>In order to structure a practice a social configuration is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice are constituted under the force of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutuality of engagement: Constructing and reproducing the relationships (often called memberships) for doing things together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint enterprise: shared objective negotiated by its participants to deal with a situation as they experience it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared repertoire: Resources for negotiation of meaning that a community has adopted during its existence, and which have become part of its practice </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Practice creates learning <ul><li>For communities of practice to be durable, learning is required </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate peripheral participation: To learn trajectories are necessary, trajectories created openings within communities that foster member’s learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a constant flux; neither inherently stable, nor randomly changeable </li></ul>
  14. 14. Practice creates boundaries <ul><li>Inherent to practice is emergence of boundaries, creating discontinuities in learning </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome learning blockades boundary trajectories are vital </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with boundaries our identities have to incorporate situated or partial identities and multimemberships </li></ul><ul><li>Reification can also serve continuity across community of practices by brokering via boundary objects (the sprout of object-centered sociality) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations try to design boundary practices, overlaps and peripheries to bridge isolations, yet it is up to the community to appropriate them </li></ul>
  15. 15. Practice creates locality <ul><li>Practice, and thus communities of practice, is always local. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice always are part of broader constellations. </li></ul><ul><li>These constellations are institutionalized structures </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding local and global and their interplay is vital in realistic organizational design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naïve associations hoaxing ‘a living togetherness’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KPI steering as way of understanding the practice </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Relevancy PBA <ul><li>Practice Based Approach (PBA) </li></ul><ul><li>Practice situated in middle of structure and agency extremes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure (Objectivism, functionalism, positivism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency (Subjectivism, symbolic interactionism, pragmatism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In search for middle way: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giddens’ structuration theory, Latour’s actor-network theory, Wenger’s practice based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of organizational reconstitutions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Assignment