Rhyme Use of matching sound patterns in two or more words: “tight” and “might” or “sleep” and “deep” For rhyme to be perfect , the final vowel and noun patterns must be the same Imperfect rhyme occurs when the final consonant sounds are the same but the verb pattern is different: “learn” and “barn” or “road” and “dead” The most common type of rhyme is end rhyme , where the final words of each line rhyme
Rhythm The regular occurrence of sounds Beating of a heart, lapping of waves Achieved through balanced structure and regular rhyme and meter The way words are set up on a page can help achieve certain rhythm
Stanza Group of two or more lines with the same metrical pattern – and often with a regular rhyme scheme as well – separated by blank space Functions like a paragraph – groups related ideas
Types of Stanzas Couplet – two line stanza with rhyming lines of similar length and meter Quatrain – four line stanza with rhyming lines of similar length and meter Heroic couplet – consists of two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter – there is a weak pause after the first line and a strong pause after the second
Foot See handout
Meter The recurrence of regular units of stressed and unstressed syllables A stress (or accent) occurs when one syllable is emphasized more than another Ex. Basic, Illusion Readers analyze meter by looking at the poem
Speaker Like other literature, there is a speaker in poetry Often not the author Speaker is also called the persona Sometimes a poem will have a speaker, but the author’s voice will shine through as well Don’t ever assume that the author is naturally the poem’s speaker
Questions for finding the speaker Is the speaker old or young? Happy? Sad? Defiant? Angry? Distant? Is the poem written in first person? Second? Third? Title – sometimes this will tell who the speaker is Is the speaker isolated? Without self control? Is the speaker being blunt about what he / she has to say?
Situation Often refers to the setting Even though a poem is short, the audience should be able to identify where it takes place as well as time period
Assonance Repetition of the same or similar vowels Occurs especially in stressed syllables Used to unify a poem Can be distracting if used ineffectively
Alliteration Repetition of consonant sounds in consecutive or neighboring words Usually found at the beginning of words Used to enhance sound in a poem
Onomatopoeia The sound of a word echoes its meaning Bang , crash , hiss One of the earliest and most primitive ways of enhancing sound in a poem
Sonnet Closed form poetry 14 line poem with specific rhyme scheme Shakespearean Sonnet Three quatrains with concluding couplet Iambic pentameter abab, cdcd, efef, gg Introduce in first quatrain, develop in next two, finish in couplet
Sonnet (cont.) Petrarchan Sonnet One octave and one sestet Iambic pentameter abba, abba, cde, cde Present problem in octave, resolve in sestet
Ballad Originally made to be sung Uses repeated words and phrases to advance story Narrative poetry What does this mean?
Free Verse No identifiable rhyme or meter Sometimes odd breaks in lines There are still certain things that unify a poem – repeated words and appearances of words on the printed page