Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Psichology and health promotion (assignment)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Psichology and health promotion (assignment)

1,148
views

Published on

You are the local Director of Public Health in your region where HIV infection is a major public health issue and national leaders do not support drug use or barrier contraception. Describe how you …

You are the local Director of Public Health in your region where HIV infection is a major public health issue and national leaders do not support drug use or barrier contraception. Describe how you would use your knowledge of public education, individual’s perception of risk and the use of the media, to promote healthy behaviour to limit disease impact, and increase the use and public acceptance of drug therapy.
Reinforce your answer with evidence based interventions as far as possible.

Published in: Health & Medicine

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,148
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SUMMATIVE ASSIGNMENT HP27 – HEALTH PROMOTION:PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH PROMOTION November 2003 Word count: 2031 Dr Josep Vidal-Alaball
  • 2. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344You are the local Director of Public Health in your region where HIV infection is amajor public health issue and national leaders do not support drug use or barriercontraception. Describe how you would use your knowledge of public education,individual’s perception of risk and the use of the media, to promote healthybehaviour to limit disease impact, and increase the use and public acceptance ofdrug therapy.Reinforce your answer with evidence based interventions as far as possible.ScenarioFor the purpose of this assignment I will assume I am the local Director of Health in a sub-Saharan Christian region of Africa. Traditionally national leaders have been opposing theuse of drugs to combat HIV/AIDS for economical reasons and religious leaders have beendiscouraging the use of condoms. This attitude is affecting the HIV/AIDS programmes runby international agencies to prevent the spread of the disease and is stopping moves toprovide affordable drugs.The ProblemMore than three million people died worldwide from AIDS during 2002, from those 2.5million where adults and more than 600,000 children (UNAIDS/WHO, 2002).In the sub-Saharan Africa, 29,400,000 adults and children where estimated to be livingwith HIV/AIDS during 2002 and 3,500,000 became newly infected from HIV during thesame period (UNAIDS/WHO, 2002).There has been important advances in the treatment of AIDS and is faster becoming achronic illness in rich countries. Unfortunately, the situation is very different in the sub-Saharan region where patients can not afford these treatments and governments do notwant or can not pay for these expensive drugs. To aggravate the problem, often religiousleaders in the region do not support barrier contraception.So far, most of the interventions of the national and international agencies seem to befocusing in women (OFarrell, 2000), ignoring that according to UNAIDS young men (15-24 years old) represent more than a quarter of all people who have HIV infection. These 2
  • 3. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344young men are the most at risk of contracting the infection as they more likely to engagein unprotected sex with more than one sexual partner and they are more likely to injectdrugs and share needles (Crowe, 2001).How to tackle the problemMy aim is to improve knowledge and understanding of the HIV problem amongst youngmen, hoping that this will change their behaviour. Men often put women in vulnerablesituations regarding taking risks and an intervention targeting this group could becontributing to control the spread of HIV infection.At the same time I am planning to start lobbying the government in order to get theirsupport to provide affordable drugs to treat patients with HIV/ADS.Stakeholder AnalysisIn order to address the problem of lack of support from national and religious leaders, myfirst intervention is going to involve a stakeholder analysis. My objective will be to identifythose people or organisations than can influence behaviour in young men regardingHIV/AIDS or can increase the use and public acceptance of drug therapy. [See appendix 1for stakeholder analysis (Varvasovszky and Brugha, 2000)].Once the stakeholders have been identified I will meet them to explain the campaign I ampreparing, I will do my best to convince sceptics with help from supporting organisations.I will use The Declaration of Alma Ata (1978) to try to convince national leaders. I willexplain them that “health is a fundamental human right”, the “most important world-widesocial goal” and that “health is essential to sustained economic and social development”.The HIV/AIDS pandemic has reduced average national economic growth rates by 2-4% ayear in Africa (Dixon et al., 2002). Finally, I will remind them that “governments have aresponsibility for the health of their people”.I am aware of the power religion has in my community and that this may influence myprogramme. A recent article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, has criticised 3
  • 4. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344severely the Catholic Church in Africa for jeopardizing programmes aimed to increase theuse of condoms (Editorial, 2003). However, it is possible to engage the religious sector inthe fight against HIV/AIDS. To do this it is essential to exchange ideas with this sectorwhich can be done through conferences and creating alliances at community level(UNAIDS/WHO, 2000). It is also possible to promote good sexual health using the schoolsattached to religious organizations.Public EducationMy program to promote healthy behaviour to limit disease impact and increase the useand public acceptance of drug therapy will consist in 2 related interventions: • An eye catching media campaign with adverts on TV and radio. • Community Development Programme (community participation).It is very important that I give a credible and consistent message. Trust is essential and Iwill try to avoid contradictory messages. Who gives the message is also relevant; I will usea famous figure, a local footballer now playing in Europe to promote the message. He is astrong positive role model with young people and well known for his involvement inHIV/AIDS campaigns. I will hope to involve the National Football Federation andorganisation that has influence over thousands of young men.Community Development Programme. This programme will try to mobilise the communityin my region in order to obtain their cooperation in the assessment and planning of thecampaign to limit the impact of HIV/AIDS in young men. Hopefully they will be alsoinvolved in the implementation of the programme and in the monitoring and feedback. Mymain objective will be to empower the community to increase control over the health oftheir youngsters.Risk communicationRisk communication is an inherent part of public education. Ideally, I would addressindividual’s perception of risk as studies have shown that individualised riskcommunication leads to increased participation in programmes (Edwards et al., 2003). 4
  • 5. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344Realistically this may be difficult, to address this I will communicate risk to groups usingthe media.Before doing this I will interview 20-30 young men in order to know existing healthbelieves. Believes built through the family and religion are the most difficult to change. Iwant to establish what they know and what they want to know about risks of HIV/AIDS. Iam aware that young men may receive conflicting information from different sources andthat social factors may influence the way they react to risk information (Alaszewski andHorlick-Jones, 2003), to address this I will ask them where they take the information fromand I will assess how accurate it is. I will explore perception of risk-taking, as many youngmen will participate in some health risk-taking.Use of the MediaIt is important to carefully plan the media campaign, to do so I will use the 10-pointstrategic planning described by Anne Gregory (Gregory, 1996). ANALYSIS OBJECTIVES PUBLICS MESSAGES STRATEGY TACTICS TIMESCALES RESOURCES EVALUATION REVIEW 5
  • 6. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344I will run a media campaign to promote public awareness of both, prevention andtreatment of HIV/AIDS. I need the media as it covers large audiences and the age group Iam targeting is likely to be consumers of media in many different formats. It is importantthat I can have the media on my site so I will develop a two-way relationship; I will try toknow the media and I will let them now my program. I will meet key health journalists and Iwill provide them with regular briefings on how the campaign is going. I will target severaltypes of media always focusing in media young men consume.It is important I know who runs the media, in my region, there is a national governmentlead TV and a less important new TV channel. Some people have access to cable TV butjust in the inner city areas.I will launch the media campaign, coinciding with the World Aids Day, with a special mediaconference where I will present the TV advert with my famous footballer. The campaignwill be launch on TV and radio in the first instance but them I will insert adverts onmagazines used by young men and on local newspapers. The tone of the adverts will beconcise, comprehensive and accurate. I will prepare news releases regularly to informabout how the campaign is going and I will organize another media conference six monthsand one year after the campaign starts to review and explain how the campaign is going.(See appendix 2 for initial press release)Using the EvidenceThere is evidence that targeted information coming from trusted sources and linked tocommunity resources, such as the provision of condoms, does reduce high risk behaviour(Myhre and Flora, 2000).There have been initiatives linking football with HIV/AIDS prevention in young men. InNairobi, Kenya, the “Break the Silence: Talk about AIDS” campaign organized a footballtournament and several related activities with the objective of promoting awarenessamongst youngsters through football. The campaign reached further as involved the wholecommunity and contributed changes to policy affecting young people (Awasum et al.,1999). A recent systematic review has also concluded that mass media interventions canhave a positive influence in the utilization of health care services (Grilli et al., 2003). 6
  • 7. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344Community mobilization has proved to be a key factor in trying to prevent the spreading ofHIV/AIDS in Africa. It is well known that it is easy to start a community effort but it is veryhard to sustain the programmes. To ensure sustainability it is essential to have a broadand representative group of community members providing an equal partnership andmaximizing community resources (UNAIDS/WHO, 2000).In Zambia there have been examples of partnership between religious organizations andNGOs to provide sexual health education to religious youth groups (UNAIDS/WHO, 2000),proving that it is possible to engage religious groups in HIV/AIDS prevention programmes.ConclusionsIt is possible to promote healthy behaviour to limit the impact of HIV/AIDS among youngmen using an educational media campaign involving an area of interest to those men, as itis football and a Community Development Programme to secure the long termsustainability of the programme.The programme has another intention; to be used as a tool to lobby the government inorder to stop interfering in the efforts to provide affordable antiviral drugs. 7
  • 8. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344References(1978) In International Conference on Primary Health Care. Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.Alaszewski, A. and Horlick-Jones, T. (2003) How can doctors communicate information about risk more effectively? BMJ, 327, 728-731.Awasum, D., Sienche, C. and Obwaka, E. (1999) John Hopkins University.Crowe, S. (2001) AIDS education must target young men in developing countries, BMJ, 323, 472d-.Dixon, S., McDonald, S. and Roberts, J. (2002) The impact of HIV and AIDS on Africas economic development, BMJ, 324, 232-234.Editorial (2003) The leading edge. Faith no more, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3.Edwards, A., Unigwe, S., Elwyn, G. and Hood, K. (2003) Effects of communicating individual risks in screening programmes: Cochrane systematic review, BMJ, 327, 703-709.Gregory, A. (1996) Planning and Managing a Public Relations Campaign, Kogan, London.Grilli, R., Ramsay, C. and Minozzi, S. (Eds.) (2003) Mass media interventions: effects on health services utilisation (Cochrane Review), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.Myhre, S. L. and Flora, J. A. (2000) HIV/AIDS communication campaigns: progress and prospects. J Health Commun, 5(suppl), 29-45.OFarrell, N. (2000) Getting HIV/AIDS accepted on the political agenda, BMJ, 320, 516a.UNAIDS/WHO (2000) In UNAIDS Best Practice Collection.UNAIDS/WHO (2002) In AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2002.Varvasovszky, Z. and Brugha, R. (2000) How to do (or not to do)... A stakeholder analysis, Health Policy and Planning, 15, 338-345. 8
  • 9. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344APPENDIX 1. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSISStakeholders Involvement Interest Influence/ Position Impact in the issue in the Power of issue issueUNAIDS/WHO Providing High Medium Mobilised Medium programmes Strong leadershipNGOs Providing High Low Mobilised Low programmesGovernment Afraid of loosing High High Non- High control compliantReligious Afraid of loosing Medium High Non- Highleaders control compliantTribal leaders Following advise Low High Non- High from government and mobilised religious leadersMedical Willing to provide High Low Supportive Lowprofession careDrug Willing to provide High Medium Supportive Lowmanufacturers medicationMedia Heavily controlled by Low Medium Non- Medium government mobilisedNational Football Not interested in the Very low Medium Non- MediumFederation problem mobilisedGeneral public Unaware of the Low Low Non- Medium problem mobilised 9
  • 10. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344APPENDIX 2. PRESS RELEASE MEDIA CONFERENCE Launch of campaign to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS amongst young men. Monday 1st December 2003More than three million people died worldwide from AIDS during 2002, from those 2.5million where adults and more than 600,000 children. In the sub-Saharan Africa,3,500,000 adults and children became newly infected from HIV during 2002. There hasbeen important advances in the treatment of AIDS and is faster becoming a chronicillness.Until now, most of the interventions of the national and international agencies seem to befocusing in women, ignoring that according to UNAIDS young men represent more than aquarter of all people who have HIV infection. These young men are the most at risk ofcontracting the infection as they more likely to engage in unprotected sex with more thanone sexual partner and they are more likely to inject drugs and share needles.We are launching a campaign to promote the use of condoms amongst young men inorder to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS in our region. Condoms have been shown to preventthis fast growing illness and they are cheap and easy to use.Mr. X. Goal, our famous football player, will launch the campaign. He is well know for hislong lasting lobbing work to provide with affordable drugs people suffering from HIV/AIDS.He will also be the main actor in our adverts. He will answer your questions and will beavailable for a photo opportunity at the end of the conference. We will like to thank him forhis altruistic collaboration with the campaign.Dr J Vidal-AlaballDirector of Public Health 10
  • 11. HP27. Health Promotion. Summative Assignment. 21344APPENDIX 3. REFLECTIVE STATEMENT.What I have learned in undertaking the assignment.I have acquired a deeper understanding of the problem that HIV/AIDS posses to thedevelopment of the sub-Saharan Africa. I was aware of the problem but I was shocked toknow the full scale of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in this region.I have learnt how to use the media to promote healthier behaviour though public educationand how to manage individual’s perception of risk. I have though about different ways toget a clear message to young men and I have come across football as a mean or healthpromotion.I have learnt about better ways to encourage community participation and to ensure thesustainability of the projects and I have discovered the Community DevelopmentProgrammes.Literature search methodsI have used Ovid-Athens to locate articles using the following words: HIV/AIDS,campaigns, health Promotion, Community Development Programmes, Africa.I have used www.bmj.com and the Cochrane Library. I have hand searched thebibliography of interesting articles to find out more references.I have downloaded several documents from UNAIDS/WHO and the Health DevelopmentAgency Website. I have also used www.google.com. 11