Contaminated land defined as “Any land which appears to the local authority in whose authority it is situated to be in such a condition, by reason of substances in, or under land that significant harm is being caused or there is significant possibility of such harm being caused” (Part IIA of the Environment Protection Act (1990, Section 78(A))
The EA estimates between 5,000 and 20,000 contaminated land sites in England and Wales (Wales, has a significant number of such sites)
Pathway : route needed by the chemical substances to enter the human body: inhalation of volatile compounds, ingestion of soil (particularly in children), consumption of contaminated food or water or direct dermal contact with polluted sources.
CADMIUM Cadmium can be found in cigarettes, fertilisers used in agriculture and in low levels in all foods (highest in shellfish, liver, and kidney meats) Mean cadmium content in soil 1.2 mg/Kg. Median 0.9 mg/Kg (England and Wales)
Contaminated land management requires more than technical expertise. Social issues such as house prices, house ownership or stigma of the neighbourhood are also important
Risk Comparisons. Often, an involuntary risk is compared with a voluntary one (e.g. the risk from nearby incinerator is compared with smoking or dietary habits). If such a comparison is done in the spirit of minimising the importance of the involuntary risk, it will generate anger