An attitude is an affective (affect) thefeeling of liking or disliking based on beliefs(cognitions) about an object which leads to areadiness to behave (behaviour) in a certain manner.
“I hate tennis” “ I love red” “Mmmm. Chinese food” “Ewwww. Dust bunnies” Emotions in our attitudes The feeling of like or dislike that causes us to evaluate an object as good or bad Emotional reactions make up the affective component of an attitude , can be positive (like, love, desire, wanting) , negative (dislike, hatred, rejection, contempt) or neutral (disinterest uncertainty)
Thecognitive component of an attitude forms beliefs and assumptions about aspects of our social world. These assumptions can be as unfair as the affects.
As a result of affect and cognition, we behave in a certain way.A racist white man can object to work under a black but highly qualified person.
Some basic attitudes are instinctive which is rare We build our likes and dislikes based on our experiences Or we are conditioned Or people around us may teach us the attitudes directly or indirectly Sources of attitudes are Exposure Conditioning Socialization
Repeated exposure to an idea may change your attitude towards the positive side or occasionally to the negative side. E.g. Non sense words repeated many times Reverse image of our own picture is more appealing because that’s how we see us in the mirror.
Classic conditioning Emphasizes the link between an environmental stimulus and the person’s response. E.g. associating fanta with fun in an ad Mountain dew with adventure A certain song with a situation Operant conditioning Behaviors which are rewarded are reinforced, punished ones are not.
Various social agents teach us attitudes to adopt. Do not play with her, she is a bad child Do watch Hamsafar, it’s amazing!!! You ate a bun kabab from a thela, how gross. Designer lawn is thing girl, all others are rubbish,
An intergroup attitude – unjustifiable feeling of like or dislike towards the members of the group. Generallynegative, hence negative connotation associated with the word prejudice.
Stereotype (belief) that leads to prejudice (attitude), makes people discriminate (behavior). Stereotypeis “A generalization about a group of people that distinguishes those people from others”
Stereotypes are generalizations Some stereotypes may include a trace of truth Stereotypes are usually evaluative Stereotyping is not a wholly rational activity.
Racial prejudice Gender based prejudice
Peopleof same race prefer to interact with each other.A dislike for other races Demeaning behavior towards other races
Men’s prejudice against women Women’s prejudiced against women Glass ceiling effect
Social Inequalities Unequal status breeds prejudice Maybe due to wealth, strength, family, nationality etc. Prejudice seem to justify the hurtful and insulting behavior against the prejudiced. Leads to dehumanizing, a prejudiced person is not a human with individual qualities, but a race, nationality, social status etc. Religion and Prejudice People belonging to one religion are prejudiced against others Lesser tolerance for people with different views.
Ingroups and Outgroups Ingroup A group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity. Outgroup A group that is perceived distinctively different from or apart from the ingroup. Ingroup bias Tendency to favor one’s ingroup. Leads to Liking of one’s ingroup Dislike for outgroup Not necessarily leads devaluing of outgroup members.
Conformity Prejudice maybe maintained to conform to the social norms of society. The need might not exactly be bias against people, rather the need to be accepted in society.
Frustration and aggression Cause of frustration too intimidating (strong) or too vague, it is redirected towards someone else. Intensifies dislike for the already disliked Another source is competition. Competition for the same thing, when one group gets it the other group dislikes them Personality dynamics Need for status and group identification – allows a feeling of superiority over others when belonging to a group.
Stereotypes are result of simplification of the complex world. Categorization Organizing the world by making clusters of people and objects. Makes it easier to think and remember about them. Similarities within groups and differences between groups are exaggerated due to categorization.
Distintive Stimuli in people People having something distinctive stand out more. You read more into their behavior than happens. You might notice more things that may otherwise be unnoticed.
Attribution Attributing behavior to the inner personalities and ignoring situational forces. This happens due to focusing more on people and not on the constraints of their situations. Attribution error – when actions are described of people in groups. The just world phenomenon – The tendency of people to believe that the world is just and therefore people get what they deserve and deserve and what they get. (strengthened through moral stories) – encourages attribution.