Lecture 7 attitudes

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  • 1. Attitudes and prejudice
  • 2. An attitude is an affective (affect) thefeeling of liking or disliking based on beliefs(cognitions) about an object which leads to areadiness to behave (behaviour) in a certain manner.
  • 3.  “I hate tennis”  “ I love red”  “Mmmm. Chinese food”  “Ewwww. Dust bunnies” Emotions in our attitudes The feeling of like or dislike that causes us to evaluate an object as good or bad Emotional reactions make up the affective component of an attitude , can be positive (like, love, desire, wanting) , negative (dislike, hatred, rejection, contempt) or neutral (disinterest uncertainty)
  • 4.  Thecognitive component of an attitude forms beliefs and assumptions about aspects of our social world. These assumptions can be as unfair as the affects.
  • 5.  As a result of affect and cognition, we behave in a certain way.A racist white man can object to work under a black but highly qualified person.
  • 6.  Some basic attitudes are instinctive which is rare We build our likes and dislikes based on our experiences Or we are conditioned Or people around us may teach us the attitudes directly or indirectly Sources of attitudes are  Exposure  Conditioning  Socialization
  • 7.  Repeated exposure to an idea may change your attitude towards the positive side or occasionally to the negative side. E.g.  Non sense words repeated many times  Reverse image of our own picture is more appealing because that’s how we see us in the mirror.
  • 8.  Classic conditioning  Emphasizes the link between an environmental stimulus and the person’s response.  E.g. associating fanta with fun in an ad  Mountain dew with adventure  A certain song with a situation Operant conditioning  Behaviors which are rewarded are reinforced, punished ones are not.
  • 9.  Various social agents teach us attitudes to adopt.  Do not play with her, she is a bad child  Do watch Hamsafar, it’s amazing!!!  You ate a bun kabab from a thela, how gross.  Designer lawn is thing girl, all others are rubbish,
  • 10.  An intergroup attitude – unjustifiable feeling of like or dislike towards the members of the group. Generallynegative, hence negative connotation associated with the word prejudice.
  • 11.  Stereotype (belief) that leads to prejudice (attitude), makes people discriminate (behavior). Stereotypeis “A generalization about a group of people that distinguishes those people from others”
  • 12.  Stereotypes are generalizations Some stereotypes may include a trace of truth Stereotypes are usually evaluative Stereotyping is not a wholly rational activity.
  • 13.  Racial prejudice Gender based prejudice
  • 14.  Peopleof same race prefer to interact with each other.A dislike for other races Demeaning behavior towards other races
  • 15.  Men’s prejudice against women Women’s prejudiced against women Glass ceiling effect
  • 16.  Social Inequalities  Unequal status breeds prejudice  Maybe due to wealth, strength, family, nationality etc.  Prejudice seem to justify the hurtful and insulting behavior against the prejudiced.  Leads to dehumanizing, a prejudiced person is not a human with individual qualities, but a race, nationality, social status etc. Religion and Prejudice  People belonging to one religion are prejudiced against others  Lesser tolerance for people with different views.
  • 17.  Ingroups and Outgroups  Ingroup  A group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity.  Outgroup  A group that is perceived distinctively different from or apart from the ingroup.  Ingroup bias  Tendency to favor one’s ingroup.  Leads to  Liking of one’s ingroup  Dislike for outgroup  Not necessarily leads devaluing of outgroup members.
  • 18.  Conformity  Prejudice maybe maintained to conform to the social norms of society.  The need might not exactly be bias against people, rather the need to be accepted in society.
  • 19.  Frustration and aggression  Cause of frustration too intimidating (strong) or too vague, it is redirected towards someone else.  Intensifies dislike for the already disliked  Another source is competition.  Competition for the same thing, when one group gets it the other group dislikes them Personality dynamics  Need for status and group identification – allows a feeling of superiority over others when belonging to a group.
  • 20.  Stereotypes are result of simplification of the complex world. Categorization  Organizing the world by making clusters of people and objects.  Makes it easier to think and remember about them.  Similarities within groups and differences between groups are exaggerated due to categorization.
  • 21.  Distintive Stimuli in people  People having something distinctive stand out more.  You read more into their behavior than happens.  You might notice more things that may otherwise be unnoticed.
  • 22.  Attribution  Attributing behavior to the inner personalities and ignoring situational forces.  This happens due to focusing more on people and not on the constraints of their situations.  Attribution error – when actions are described of people in groups.  The just world phenomenon – The tendency of people to believe that the world is just and therefore people get what they deserve and deserve and what they get. (strengthened through moral stories) – encourages attribution.