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Lecture 5   socialization

Lecture 5 socialization






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    Lecture 5   socialization Lecture 5 socialization Presentation Transcript

    • Socialization
    •  Process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies. Manas biological being becomes a human being as result. Socializationensures the continuity of societies through successive generations Socialization is accomplished through a number of agents.
    •  Internalization of norms  When a social norm is accepted as a personal behavior, it is called internalization.  It explains the individual tendency to behave in relatively predictable ways even in the absence of formal group pressures.
    •  Group norms and individual behavior  Individuals more or less follow norms accepted by a group
    •  Selective Internalization  The individual internalizes some norms from each of his reference groups but the influence of primary group – family and peers – is greater than that of more impersonal groups.
    •  Roles – Part people play as members of social groups Rolesocialization – Groups can function smoothly only if participants learn their lines and perform as expected. Reallife role playing requires acquisition of required skills as well as supportive emotions, attitudes and values.
    •  Anticipatory socialization – preparing for a role in expectation that you will be required to fulfill in future. General and segmental roles  General roles are based on age, gender and occupation and largely shape a person’s behavior  Segmental roles are played in certain situations e.g. a mother standing in line at the bank.
    •  Adjusting to new roles  Sometimes new roles require extensive resocialization.  E.g a girl prepared for the role of wife takes on a career as a writer.
    •  Group controls & internalized controls  From a group perspective, positive and negative sanctions are used to encourage adherence to established norms and to check potential or actual deviations  Sanctions are experienced very personally, causing pleasure or displeasure  Positive gratification: Felt when a person is rewarded. Reinforces behavior  Negative gratification: Felt when a person is punished or made to fell uncomfortable.  Repeated behavior patterns tend to be firmly established.  Most effective symbolic gestures are applied unintentionally.
    •  Group Ranking System  Group ranking systems have the effect of narrowing the range of contact among group members.  People interact intimately with those closer to them, formally with those far to them in terms of family, class, education, responsibility etc.
    •  PersonalOrganization of a person is shaped by the total pattern of his social experience. Agents of social experience include  The Family  The Peer Group  The School  Mass Media
    •  Responsibility of the family includes  Personality formation  “Train” the new generation  Guidance It depends on  Rural or urban family  Occupation of parents  Social class  Gender composition of the siblings  Presence or absence of parent(s)
    •  Most influential agent after the family Has a more recreational purpose Helps the child develop ideas about the  norms,  roles,  systems of social control,  differential ranking Teaches the child about  His tolerance limits  Cooperation  Sharing  Developing friendships He learns to predict other people’s behaviors
    •  Peer groups create three kinds of personalities  Tradition directed: looks to accepted ways of society for guidance in personal conduct  Inner directed: found in societies going rapid normative change as there are no stable guides.  Other directed: In modern societies, these people look to peers for ideas on how to behave. Great need for social approval and fear of social rejection. Generation Gap  Importance of peer group results in wide disparity between norms of young people and their adults.  This is due to peer group demands to think , act and feel in ways in a sharp contrast to the elders’ norms
    • Generation gap Peer pressure
    •  Responsible to transmit to the child the skills, knowledge, values, attitudes to be a better member of the society. It might not always succeed in it’s task.  School is potentially an arena for serious conflict of values.  School can be perceived as a punishing activity with few successes and many failures  School can even be seen as the enemy by the child, designed to hurt and embarrass them.
    •  Media and cultural norms  Media provides the “definition of the situation” on a variety of issues.  It emphasizes certain topics, stresses certain interpretations, overuses specific themes, which results in a distorted set of norms which might not be reflective of the society. The media and incidental learning  Incidental learning is the unplanned by product of the entertainment.  It gives a glimpse of the adult world to the child, which fascinates him.  He acquires concepts about people’s values, roles and other knowledge without really seeking the information.  It might give an incorrect interpretation of the society.