Personality might mean The social appeal and effectiveness of a person An individual’s striking characteristic. Individual differences
Defining Personality “ Characteristic patterns of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment”
Implies consistency in individual actions People tend to act or think in different ways. E.g. one person suppresses anger, the other expresses anger without any reason.
Resultof interaction between personality characteristics and the social and physical conditions of the environment. Internally controlled behavior: determined by the characteristics of the individual and is fairly consistent Externallycontrolled behavior: determined by the particular situation in which the behavior happens
The “you” others observe and listen to. Itincludes expressive features, manners (speech patterns, the way you carry yourself), general disposition (general mood – cheery or grumpy), the way you react to threatening behaviors, the attitudes you express etc. Behaviors are different in different social gatherings.
Fantasies,thoughts, and experiences that you don’t share with others. Special experiences, wishes that seem too childish and immature, dreams and memories are all part of
Biological influences Common experiences Unique experiences
Body build: Low co-relation between body build and personality Mostly stereotyping E.g. fat people are jolly Body physiology Certain enzymes and chemicals in a human body affect the personality E.g .thrill seekers have a different chemical makeup than calm people
Families in one culture share the same beliefs, customs and values. Children are taught accepted behaviors. E.g. how to behave a formal reception , a sports event Even then, individuals may not have the same personality because They are transmitted by adults who may not all share the same values and practices The individual has some experiences which are unique.
Experiences shape an individual A sick person who has been cared for a long time, may want to be cared for the same way and exhibit this desire. A chance to show heroism may cause someone to change views about himself and act more courageously next time. A traumatic experience may teach someone to be more careful.
Trait approach Every person has identifiable dominant traits (a quality that differs from person to person). Those are in born characteristics like aggressive, cautious etc. Social learning approach Personality development based on learning, people learning from the society through various methods. Psychoanalytic approach Focuses on private personality; motivated by unconscious impulses. Freud’s 3 functions of personality, id, ego and super ego. Phenomenological approach Subjective study of human behavior; conscious views.
Regularities in personalities Consistency over time Consistency over situations