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Lecture 3 perceptual process


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  • 1. Perceptual process
  • 2.  Perception is a creative process. It is not simply observing, hearing or sensing what is out there in your environment. It involves the assigning of meaning to these stimuli. Infact, experiences are more a product of interpretations rather than the information itself.
  • 3.  Schemata are the patterns we develop over time to organize incoming information. It helps to organize the comprehension of the events. It gives us a way to construct or assign meaning to new information. Scripts also affect the expectations about the order of the events. They help fill in the missing blanks in a particular way. It is also called our reality.
  • 4.  Isthe script something we sense or is it all in our head ? Probably both, and both are important in creating our realities.
  • 5.  Ourscripts are shaped by our experiences, knowledge, needs, values and beliefs. New incoming information is tested against them. Itcan reinforce preexisting scripts, make a pre existing script clear, add a new element to it, or restructure it.
  • 6.  Scripts / schemas/ realities are formed on past. Evenrecent past has an effect on our expectations. E.g. news about a muder, 3 headlines, one suggests suspect is guilty, one is neutral, one suggests suspect is innocent. All three have an impact on our perception about the suspect.
  • 7.  Sometimeswe do not have a set of previous experiences. E.g. watching a new tv station, listening to a new song etc. Expectations are developed on the basis of initial bits of information received e.g the first scene of a drama, first page of a novel, starting music of a song
  • 8.  Attitude: The way a person thinks or acts depending on beliefs, values, and feelings. Attitudecreates a set or expectations of that affects perception. E.g. more violations by the opposite team in sports. Selectiveperception – process of screening out information not consistent with our schemas.
  • 9.  Consistencytheory – avoiding inconsistency by misinterpreting any new information that might be inconsistent with our attitudes. Principle of least effort: It is easier to perceive messages that are consistent with what you perceive. It takes more effort to perceive a message that is unexpected or contrary to the way you see the world.
  • 10.  Needsare important factors when processing information. Information relevant to needs is perceived more than other information. This is true specially in the case of need for concrete things such as food.
  • 11.  Informationprocessing is affected by our reference groups which include  Family, friends, peers etc.  Those with whom we associate  Those with whom we want to associate Informationprocessing changes with the reference group  E.g. munni badnam hui with friends, family, kids and adults, each is different experience
  • 12.  Referencegroups shape our sets or expectations for certain kinds of information. Reference group also effect our opinions.  We form an opinion when confronted for it or if we think we will talk to someone else.  The opinion that we develop is based on who the other person is and what our relationship is to that person.
  • 13.  Personalitytraits – the more close-minded a person is, the more he is affected by authority figures and vice versa. Language and information processing – Language gives meaning to your experiences. If you can assign a label to your experience, it becomes meaningful. If not, there is difficulty in believing.
  • 14.  Effects of chunking memory  Information is stored in chunks or bloks in our memory.  Chunks can be small, medium, or large.  The larger the chunk of information, the greater the information loss.
  • 15.  Prior Exposure:  It is easier to learn things that you had learned before and forgotten, than those you never learned about. Repetition and Persuasion:  Repetition of a persuasive message causes people to agree more rapidly with the statement of opinion.
  • 16.  Gaps:We tend to fill missing gaps based on our previous knowledge of similar scenarios. Iconicity:The degree to which the a symbol is similar to which it represents. The nearer the symbol to the representation, the easier to understand.
  • 17. Family
  • 18.  Primacy effect  If you read or hear a series of ideas within a relatively short period of time, the earliest ideas stick best to in your memory. Recency effect  If you read or hear a series of ideas within a relatively short period of time, the latest (most recent) ideas stick best to in your memory.
  • 19.  No interest or opinion  When we are not interested in an issue or we have no opinion, we tend to be influenced by the information we receive first. High interest  When we are highly interested and need to understand an issue, the order of information has little or no influence
  • 20.  Suspicion of external influence  When we suspect that someone is trying to influence us, the impact of initial bits of information is reduced. Involvement in conversation  If we become involved in an issue, taking any position based on the information received up to that point, the ultimate effect of that earlier information is increased.  The more public that commitment, the greater the influence.
  • 21.  Distraction  Time and distraction created by other activities in the intervals between bits of information, the most recent bits of information are most remembered.