• Expert • Trustworthy Credibility • Confident • Straightforward • Physical appeal • Similarity (Opposites generally do not attract)Attractiveness • Objective reality – dissimilar person preferred • Subjective preference – similar is preferred
Reason Vs. • Highly involved audience listens to reason • Less involved audience listens to the communicator they like Emotion • Association of good feelings • Evoking negative associations/ fear • Disagreement prompts change in opinions but might backfire asDiscrepancy well • Discrepancy and credibility interact: Low credibility means high discomfortOne sided Vs. • Acknowledging opposite arguments might cause confusion or it Two sided might make the message seem fair.Primacy Vs. • Primacy effect: Initial bits of information are more effective • Recency effect: Later bits of information are more effective if Recency • Sufficient time separates two messages • Audience is not convinced by the first message.
Personal • Direct communication with people versus is more effective • Media is more effective in terms Media of mass issues.Influence Passive • On radical and important issues, active persuasion doesn’t workVs Active • On more personal issue specially those which can project a positive Msg. image, active persuasion helps
What the • The message is not as crucial as theaudience response it evokes in a recipient’s mind • Announcing the persuasive intent reduces is the persuasion factor • Persuasion can be increased by distractingthinking? the audience from counter arguing. • Life cycle explanation – People become more conservative with growing age. • Generational explanation – Attitude Age developed in young age, remain largely unchanged and are different from what upcoming generations adopt, hence the generation gap.