I.NATURE AND MEANING OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR Deviant behavior is a form of behavior which goes beyond the expected or approved behavior of the group. It is a behavior which maybe be tolerated, approved or disapproved by the group. What is considered deviant in one society may not be considered as such in another. What is deviant in a particular society at a particular place and time may not be considered as deviant at a future time.
II.THEORIES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR 1. SOCIAL PATHOLOGY – explains that deviant behavior is caused by actual physical and mental illness, malfunctions or deformities. Solutions: Education, re-education, hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, capital punishment.
2. BIOLOGICAL THEORY – relates that behavior is a result of genetic aberrations.
Cesare Lombroso – an Italian criminologist who studied the skulls and bodies of many prisoners, reported that there are “animalistic” physical patterns found in criminals, savages and apes; that people with enormous jaws, high cheekbones, and prominent superciliary arches – are born criminals. Charles Goring – a British physician, who found no differences between criminals and ordinary citizens. Witkin (1976) – found that prisoners with an XYY chromosome pattern or with an extra Y chromosome (a normal man has an XY chromosome pattern) might predispose themselves to deviance. Danish study – the researchers speculated that men with an extra Y chromosome are less intelligent and easier for the police to catch. Solutions: Education, re-education, hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, capital punishment, and behavior modification.
3. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY – relates that behavior is brought about by inner tensions or inability to control one’s impulses and failure to structure one’s behavior in an ordinary way. Solutions: Psychiatry, psychological counseling, hospitalization, and rehabilitation; shock therapy. 4. SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY – believes that deviant behavior as caused by the breakdown of norms, laws, mores, and other important values of society. Solutions: Modification or rehabilitation in the part of the system which suffers from disorganization.
5. LABELING THEORY – society’s labeling on behaviors as deviant causes deviant behavior. Behaviors are labeled or tagged as proper or improper, moral or immoral, good or bad. Behaviors which transgress the social norms and values are labeled or socially defined deviant; they are, in turn, sanctioned by ostracism or punishment. Solutions: Relabeling and delabeling certain people as “criminals”, “prostitutes”, “homosexuals”, “schizophrenic”, etc. once considered as deviant. 6. LABELING THEORY – society’s labeling on behaviors as deviant causes deviant behavior. Behaviors are labeled or tagged as proper or improper, moral or immoral, good or bad. Behaviors which transgress the social norms and values are labeled or socially defined deviant; they are, in turn, sanctioned by ostracism or punishment. Solutions: Relabeling and delabeling certain people as “criminals”, “prostitutes”, “homosexuals”, “schizophrenic”, etc. once considered as deviant.
7. ANOMIE THEORY OR STRUCTURAL STRESS THEORY – posits that deviance exists when people are denied access to accepted means to reach approved goals. Durkheim – introduced the concept of “anomie” as a condition within society in which individuals find that the prevailing social norms are ill-defined, weak, or conflicting. For example, many people expect to have a job, but the economy may not provide enough jobs for everybody. Thus, a jobless job – seeker may resort to illegitimate or illegal means to achieve his goals. Solutions: Giving access to approved goals; equal opportunity for all. 8. CONFLICT THEORY – states that deviant behavior is caused by an unjust social structure where unequal distribution of wealth and power exists. Solutions: The moderates propose more reforms in the various social institutions; the radicals advocate a sweeping transformation or a revolutionary approach, an overhaul of the existing unjust social structure in order to bring about a more or less equal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige in the new social order.
9. CULTURAL TRANSMISSIONS OR DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY – deviance is created through the socialization or transmission of norms within a community or group. Solutions: Education, re-education, role models of successful people hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, fines, censures, capital punishment.
III.POSITIVE FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL DEVIATION A number of social deviations are the outcomes of legitimate and conventional controls. Social deviance makes people aware of the possible dangers emanating from such deviation. The recognition of deviance makes the group aware of the limits of tolerance they will have for some standards or norms. A certain amount of deviance may ensure the safety of some persons and minimize the strain on society. Deviation may serve as a warning device for some imperfections of faults in the society which may cause discontent and unrest and lead to changes that intensify morale and efficiency.
IV.TYPES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AND THE MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL ADAPTATION 1. Innovators – are those who accept culturally approved goals but disregard the institutional means to achieve them. Examples: government officials and low-wage earners who commit graft and corruption to achieve a higher standard of living. 2. Ritualists – are those who give up cultural goals but follow the prescribed norms. Examples: a religious fanatic; an employee who reports to work but does nothing about it. 3. Retreatists – are those who abandon both the cultural goals and the prescribed means to achieve them. Examples: drug addicts, hippies, alcoholics. 4. Rebels – are those reject both the societal goals and prescribed means to achieved them but try set up new norms or goals. Examples: rebel soldiers; New People’s Army.
V. SPECIFIC KINDS OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR 1. Infractions of the Sex Code and Laws
a. Rape i. Homosexuality b. Prostitution j. Transvestism c. White slavery k. Sex transplant d. Sexual harassment l. Pre-marital relations e. Polygamy m. Live-in relations f. Adultery n. Extra-marital relations g. Concubinage o. Pornography h. Sexual perversions such as zoophilia or beastiality, pedophilia, necrophilia, nymphomania, sex-mania, exhibitionism, nudism, voyeurism, sadism, and masochism.
2. Infractions of Life, Liberty, Property and against the State
a. Abortion i. Graft and corruption b. Child abuse j. Coup ‘d etat c. Wife battering k. Rebellion/mutiny d. Violations of human rights l. Plunder/economic sabotage e. Juvenile delinquency m. Piracy f. Vandalism n. White-collar crime g. Embezzlement o. Organized crime/syndicates h. Criminality which also includes: estafa, perjury, arson, theft, robbery, smuggling, murder, homicide, parricide; genocide, kidnapping, etc.
3. Infractions against Self (Victimless Crime)
a. Illegal gambling f. Mendicancy or beggary b. Alcoholism g. Prostitution c. Suicide h. Smoking d. Drug abuse i. Mental and psychological aberrations e. Runaways j. Curfew, loitering
VI.SANCTIONS AS MEANS OF SOCIAL CONTROL Sanctions – refers to systems of reward and punishment in order to ensure that norms are followed and expectations met. Kinds: a. Formal sanctions – are used for violations of formalized norms in organizations or associations and carried out by people with legal and moral authority to enforce them. Examples: penal laws, fines, death penalty. b. Informal sanctions – are gossip, unfavorable and favorable public opinion, giving or withdrawing of affection, love or friendship; verbal admiration or criticism, reprimands or verbal commendations.
VII.SOCIAL CONTROL OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PHILIPPINES The informal sanctions include the following:
1.Pakikisama or concession 2. Gossip, ridicule, ostracism, reprimands 3. Favorable or unfavorable public opinion 4. Bestowal or denial of affection 5. Approval and praise 6. Mob violence 7. Verbal labels or censures, such as immoral, sinful, vicious, anti-social, unethical, brusque, grotesque, obnoxious, distasteful, preposterous, ignoramus, barbaric, uncivilized, disgusting, brutal, unconscionable, satanic, etc. 8. Leveling technique or sociostat. (A person who publicly takes credit for an act or claim any kind of superiority in the group is cut down to size.) 9. Curbing of antisocial attitudes by ascribing undesirable statuses or deviance.
The formal sanctions include: 1. Governmental sanctions – In the form of penal or criminal laws, administrative codes, civil service rules and regulations, statuses, ordinances; scrolls certificates and plaques of merits and recognition for exemplary services. 2. Business group sanctions – In the forms of promotions, bonuses, certificates of merits, citations of awards, suspensions and expulsions. 3. Church or religious sanctions – In the forms of promise of salvation or a future state of euphoria, penance, withholding of religious services at death, or excommunication. 4. Clubs and civic organizations sanctions – In the forms of awards and citations for achievement and meritorious service, or fines, temporary suspension of membership, or expulsion from the organization.
Group 3 Juvy S. Pascua Ynna Mari B. Deray Rafela T. Angolluan Gemmalyn Bangug Felina P. Lopez Sunshine Vinarao Jherymee S. Pataueg Edwin Laggui Kenneth Carag JR Galabayo Bong Estioco