Three dimensional (3 d) instructional media1


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Three dimensional (3 d) instructional media1

  2. 2. Objects and Specimens Objects - concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools, and artifacts
  3. 3. Specimens - a part or aspect of some item that is a typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group - enable us to learn many things that would otherwise be unobtainable
  4. 4. Points to Consider in Using Objects and Specimens for Teaching 1. Develop a purpose for using them 2. Provide opportunities for students to work with or to manipulate 3. Present just enough at a time 4. Present in a dramatic way
  5. 5. Advantages 1. less abstract, more concrete 2. attracts attention 3. students become more familiar with objects Limitations 1. need bigger storage 2. prone to possible damage 3. some have limitation in availability
  6. 6. Models and Mock-ups Models - modified real things, reproductions of costly or delicate items - replicas of real objects which may be larger or smaller than the real thing - can be made to show interior view of objects and they can be simplified to any extent desired in order that the basic concept represented may be communicated most adequately
  7. 7. Varied Purposes of Models 1. when real objects are too small or too large to bring into the classroom 2. to present subject matter involving the past and the future 3. physical inaccessibility 4.abstract construction 5. to explain processes
  8. 8. Types of Models 1. Solid Models - used mainly for recognizing external features
  9. 9. 2. Cross-section Model / Cut-away Models - show the internal structures
  10. 10. 3.Construction Models - models which can be assembled and disassembled to show relationship of parts to a whole
  11. 11. 4. Working Models - indicate how the things being represented operate
  12. 12. Mock-up - arrangement of a real device or associated devices, displayed in such a way that representation of reality is created - may be simplified in order to emphasize certain features - a special model where parts or a model is singled out, heightened, and magnified in order to focus on that part
  13. 13. Advantages 1. Learners can examine which may not be easy with the real object 2. Learners can handle and operate 3. Create high interest and permit close-up observation of how it works 4. Can provide learning experiences that real objects cannot provide 5. Can illustrate basic operation of a real device and provide important details 6. Allow independent study 7. Make classroom discussion more effective
  14. 14. Limitations 1. Require tedious work 2. Expensive 3. Might distort some real concepts 4. Big or heavy models may be difficult to handle for actual lecture
  15. 15. Diorama - of Greek origin which means “to see through” - a 3D representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background - miniature scene in 3D treatment meant to replicate reality
  16. 16. Principal Parts of Diorama Painted Background Case or Stage 3D Middle and Foreground Objects
  17. 17. Advantages 1. Have intrinsic value 2. Allow us to compare past and present conditions 3. Help us make connections to the real world 4. Develops students’ creativity 5. Can be viewed, handled, and examined by students 6. Adds interest and meaning to the lesson
  18. 18. Limitations 1. Demands a bigger space in terms of use and storage 2. Expensive 3. Easily damaged
  19. 19. Puppets - are artificial figures whose movements are controlled by a person - are moved by hand, strings, wires or rods - are made to represent a person, animal, plant or an object
  20. 20. Types of Puppets 1. Shadow Puppets - 2D in nature, normally controlled by rods that are much thinner than the typical ones that are used to support the rod puppet - makes use of a translucent screen and a light source
  21. 21. 2. Rod Puppets - flat, cut-out figures tacked on a stick, with one or more movable parts and operated from below the stage level by wire or slender sticks
  22. 22. 3.Hand Puppets - made to slip over the hand like a glove - puppet’s head is operated by the forefinger, the little finger and thumb are used to animate the puppet’s hands
  23. 23. 4.Glove-and-finger Puppets - make use of old gloves to which small costumed figures are attached
  24. 24. 5.Marionettes - suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above - generally constructed of wood with articulating joints that replicate those of human beings - requires greater manipulative control than an finger, glove or rod puppet
  25. 25. Advantages 1. Boost active participation among students 2. Stirring and attention-getting 3. Fascination of the inanimate objects 4. Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experience 5. Students become more creative Limitations 1. Time consuming 2. Expensive 3. Demands extra effort 4. Can compete with the teacher
  26. 26. Principles in Choosing Puppet Play for Teaching 1. Do not use puppets for plays that can be done just as well or better by another dramatic means 2. Puppet play must be based on actions rather than words 3. Keep plays short 4. Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the show 5. Adapt in all respect to your audience 6. Do not hesitate to adapt puppet play
  27. 27. Resource Person – someone invited to talk about something Consider the following when inviting and using a resource speaker: 1. engage the expert 2. clarify the purposes of the visit 3. subject should be of educational relevance and value to the students
  28. 28. Consider the following when inviting and using a resource speaker (cont.): 4. speaker should not tend to disrupt the educational program 5. info to be discussed should be appropriate to the age and maturity of students 6. teacher should remain in the classroom throughout the presentation
  29. 29. Introducing the Speaker/s 1.Prepare what you are going to say 2. Follow the TIS formula T – topic / title of speaker’s talk I – importance of the topic S – speaker’s outstanding qualifications 3. Announce speaker’s name distinctly and clearly 4. Be enthusiastic about the speaker
  30. 30. Things to Remember when Invited as a Resource Speaker 1. Restrict subject to fit the time at your disposal 2. Arrange ideas in sequence 3. Enumerate points as you make them 4. Compare the strange with the familiar 5. Turn a fact into a picture 6. Avoid technical terms 7. Use appropriate media 8. Speak with contagious enthusiasm 9. Show respect and affection to your audience 10. Begin in a friendly way
  31. 31. When delivering the talk….. 1. Crash thoroughly your shell of self-consciousness 2. Don’t try to imitate others 3. Converse with your audience 4. Put your heart into your speaking 5. Practice making your voice strong and flexible
  32. 32. Advantages 1. Less preparation on the part of the teacher 2. Thorough discussion of the topic 3. It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the speaker is good Limitations 1. Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker 2. It might confuse the audience if the speaker is not good enough 3. Less enthusiasm from the audience if the speaker is boring