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Organic fertilization and microbial dynamics

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  • 1. INFLUENCE OF LONG TERM ORGANICFERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL MICROBIALCOMMUNITY FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE ANDENZYME ACTIVITIES IN PADDY SOILWORKSHOP ON ASIAN NETWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC FARMING TECHNOLOGYJuly 1-4, 2012FERNANDO LOPEZ HALL, BUREAU OF SOILS AND WATER MANAGEMENTDILIMAN, QUEZON CITY PHILIPPINESVenecio U. Ultra, Jr. Ph.D.College of Natural SciencesCatholic University of DaeguGyeongsan City, Republic of KoreaEvelyn F. Javier, MSc.Philippine Rice ResearchInstitute, Munoz City, NuevaEcija, Philippines
  • 2. LONG TERM ORGANIC ERTILIZERUSE IN A PADDY SOIL2003-presentPhilippine Rice Research InstituteMaligaya, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
  • 3. Project Goal: To establish scientific information and data asbasis for the development of technology of anorganic-based rice production system Sustainability of rice grain yield Sustainability of soil productivity e.g. physical,chemical and biological aspect Dynamic of Insect pest profile Differences in Grain quality and seed vigor Environmental effects e.g. GHG emission
  • 4. CHEMICALPHYSICALBIOLOGICALSOILHEALTHSOIL PRODUCTIVITY;FUNCTIONALITY
  • 5. Objective:•Determine the status of soilmicrobial community structure andenzyme activities as a reflections ofthe impacts of organic fertilization onthe biological properties andprocesses in rice paddy soil.
  • 6. Original/Existing treatments:•Solo fertilizers treatment1.Control2.Full NPK rate/ha3.Half NPK rate/ha4.Rice straw5.Rice straw with EMBI6.Commercial organic fertilizer7.Chicken manure8.Green manure (T. diversifolia)
  • 7. Original/Existing treatments:•Solo fertilizers treatment•Combined fertilizer treatment1.RS with full NPK2.RS with half NPK3.RSEM with full NPK4.RSEM with half NPK5.COF with full NPK6.COF with half NPK7.WSF with full NPK8.WSF with half NPK
  • 8. Treatments for this particular study:1.Control or unfertilized plots2.Inorganic NPK fertilizers3.Commercial organic fertilizer4.Chicken manure5.Rice strawExperimental Lay-out and design:RCBD with 4 replications
  • 9. Data gathered:•Soil Enzyme Activities–Acid phosphatase–Alkaline phosphatase–Dehydrogenase–Arylsulfatase–Urease•Microbial Activity–FDA (flourescein diacetatehydrolyses)–p-D glucosadase activity–AWCD of Biolog EcoPlate
  • 10. Data gathered:•Soil Microbial Functional Diversity–Shanon-Weaver index (richness and evenness ofresponse)–Carbon Utilization Richness (number of positive wells onthe ecoplate)•Soil microbial functional structure–Principal Component Analyses (substrate utilizationphysiologic profile)
  • 11. Biolog EcoPlate inoculated with Paddy Soil toassess the Soil Microbial Physiologic Profile(Carbon Utilization Potential)
  • 12. RESULTS
  • 13. TreatmentsAcidPhosphataseAlkalinePhosphataseDehydrogenase Arylsulfatase Urease(μg ureahydrolyzed/g soil / h)μg PNP/g soil /hrControl 356±5 d 431±10 d 125±2 e 32±1 e 37±1 dIF 435±13 c 531±16 c 193±5 d 49±1 d 53±1 bCOF 726±23 a 767±46 ab 285±10 a 74±2 a 62±2 aCM 758±7 a 880±8 a 260±2 b 68±1 b 57±1 bRS 597±5 b 728±7 b 210±2 c 54±1 c 45±1 cP 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000Soil enzyme activities as affected bylong-term inorganic and organic fertilization
  • 14. FDA hydrolyses p-D-Glucosadase activitySoil Microbial Activities
  • 15. Soil Microbial ActivitiesBIOLOG ECOPLATE –Average Well Color Development
  • 16. Microbial FunctionalDiversity
  • 17. Soil microbial functional structure
  • 18. Soil BiologicalParametersSoil and Yield Parameters Grain Yield(tons/ha)Avail P(ppm)Exch K,(cmol/kg soils)SOM (%) Soil pH Avial N2009 DS 2009 WSAcid phosphatase 0.563* 0.033 ns 0.304 ns 0.319 ns 0.691** 0.066 ns -0.074 nsAlkalinephosphatase0.523* 0.058 ns 0.288 ns 0.276 ns 0.669** 0.046 ns -0.066 nsDehydrogenase 0.644* 0.046 ns 0.298 ns 0.296 ns 0.681** 0.059 ns -0.067 nsArylsulphatase 0.564* 0.040 ns 0.312 ns 0.320 ns 0.697** 0.073 ns -0.068 nsUrease 0.548* 0.034 ns 0.300 ns 0.298 ns 0.685** 0.062 ns -0.071 nsFDA 0.555* 0.037 ns 0.304 ns 0.310 ns 0.687** 0.063 ns -0.076 nsp-D-Glucosidase 0.556* 0.034 ns 0.298 ns 0.312 ns 0.684** 0.061 ns -0.077 nsShanon-WeaverIndex0.565* 0.264 ns 0.545* 0.216 ns 0.540** 0.582** 0.521**RICHNESS 0.555* 0.213 ns 0.366 ns 0.193 ns 0.586** 0.313 ns 0.334 nsPC1 0.873*** -0.124 ns 0.623** 0.580* 0.665** 0.743** 0.405 nsPC2 0.351 ns 0.107 ns 0.248 ns 0.171 ns -0.667** 0.029 ns 0.062 nsCorrelations soil and yield data Soil Biological Properties
  • 19. Summary•Soil enzymatic activities in soils were generallyhigher in paddy soils applied with organicfertilizer particularly with COF and CM–Phosphatase(acid and alkaline) increasedwith long term use of OF and resulted toenhanced P availability as indicated bythe increased available P in the paddysoils.•Organic fertilizer enhanced microbial activity insoils as shown by the increased FDA, pD-glucosidase, AWCD
  • 20. Summary•Soil microbial functional structure (usingthe Biolog Ecoplate substrate utilizationphysiologic profile) differs or showeddistinct community structure among thefertilizer used in soils
  • 21. Conclusion:•Type of fertilizer applied in the paddysoils greatly affected microbial propertieswhich are considered to be sensitiveindicators of ecosystem responses andsoil health.
  • 22. THANK YOU!!!