By Michael FarnellCOMMUNICATIONS AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY                  CMM1108
CM1108                              MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEO         INTRODUCTION                                         2...
CM1108                                                                           MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOINTRODUCTIONFilm a...
CM1108                                                                                  MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOHISTORYThe ...
CM1108                                                                        MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOHISTORY (CON’T)Hanns ...
CM1108                                                                       MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOFILM COMPOSERSThe proc...
CM1108                                                                                  MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEO"Theme" fro...
CM1108                                                                      MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOThomas NewmanIll be the...
CM1108                                                                         MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEODESIGN RATIONALEAs s...
CM1108                                                                                MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOREFERENCESFil...
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Office Rocket Assignment

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Office Rocket Assignment

  1. 1. By Michael FarnellCOMMUNICATIONS AND DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY CMM1108
  2. 2. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEO INTRODUCTION 2 HISTORY 3 HISTORY (CON‘T) 4 FILM COMPOSERS 5 FAMOUS FILM COMPOSERS 5 JOHN WILLIAMS 5 HOWARD SHORE 6 THOMAS NEWMAN 7 DESIGN RATIONALE 8 REFERENCES 91|Page
  3. 3. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOINTRODUCTIONFilm and video relies on music to help captivate an audience and get them emotionally involved.While some films and video productions use popular music as their soundtrack, the bigger budget,more ―epic‖ productions will use original music written specifically for certain scenes, known as a filmscore. Film scores are generally instrumental, andperformed by an orchestra, allowing for a more dramaticand emotional experience for the audience. Thefollowing report looks into the history of film scores, andfamous composers and the movies they were involvedin.Film music can be defined as music either directlycomposed or expressly chosen to accompany motionpictures. As a practice, it is as old as cinema itself – thevery first projected images in many places around theglobe either captured a musical performance or wasaccompanied by one. Even in those places whereaccompaniment did not initially attend motion pictures,it would soon do so. Film music has been both live and Image Retrieved from: http://splodinpandas.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/crecorded, both newly composed and compiled from onducting.jpgexisting sources, both meticulously orchestrated andproduced spontaneously through improvisation. It does not operate in exactly the same way acrosstime, across culture, and sometimes even within cultures. Across the board, however, it ischaracterized by its power to define meaning and to express emotion: film music guides our responseto the images and connects us to them. (Kalinak, 2010)2|Page
  4. 4. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOHISTORYThe root of music in film harks back to the Greek melodrams (the precursor in both literal languageand event to the melodramas of today), a cross between a play and fledgling opera in which spokenword is accompanied by music. As time passed, melodrams developed into opera, giving rise to typesof performances known as number opera (those composed of a collection of closed pieces) andcontinuous opera (those including nonstop music), divisions that film soundtracks would later echo.Wagners full-fledged support of program music at this time, as opposed to the absolute music thathad previously reigned supreme, resulted in his novel invention of leitmotifs (first used in his Ringcycle), or themes recurring throughout a work that were meant to evoke associations with an idea,character, or place. Wagner also put forth his idealistic notion of pairing all of the arts together in anopera - for example, music (the score), poetry (libretto), and painting (scenery) - without givingprecedence to any of them. He called the finished product a total work of art, or Gesamtkunstwerk,which was seen as a revolutionary idea at the time, but did not become enormously popular.Almost three centuries later, Eadweard Muybridges invention of high speed photography (movingpictures that captured motion) eventually led to the production of silent films. The first known pairingof music with film, however, did not occur until December 28, 1895, when a Parisian family, theLumieres, gave a screening with piano accompaniment to test public reaction to their films. Muybridges High Speed Photography.Retrieved from: http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x7588583/high-speed_sequence_of_a_man_doing_the_high_jump_v8000024.jpgThe idea caught on quickly, and less than two months later entire orchestras were accompanyingfilms in London theaters. The exact reasoning behind using music in conjunction with the silent film isthe subject of much speculation. Popular opinion among music theorists holds that its purpose wasmanifold: to cover up the sound of a noisy projector, and later, when technology quieted the latter, toalleviate uncomfortable silence.3|Page
  5. 5. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOHISTORY (CON’T)Hanns Eisler even proposed that music was used to reassure thefilms viewers of life and take their mind off of their own mortality inthe face of the ghostly presence silent actors onscreen might seemto represent.Whatever the case, music at the time was surely not intended toaffect the films emotional import. Film music during this periodwas unanimously seen as secondary to the visual aspects of thefilm itself; thus, the compositions played ranged from light popularmusic to traditional classical, with no relation to the subject of thefilm whatsoever.The first rudimentary step in using music meant to evoke orenhance emotion in films came some years later (directors hadfinally began to realize that unrelated music detracted from the Hanns Eisler.movies in which they were used) in the form of music handbooks, Retrieved from: http://userserve- ak.last.fm/serve/252/526581.jpgcompendiums of musical themes meant to suit a particular action,style, scene, or mood, drawing on Wagners leitmotif principle. These themes were categorized bygeneral names such as "Nature," "Nation and Society," and "Church and State," as well as morespecific ones, like "Happy," "Climbing," "Night: threatening mood," and "Impending doom: somethingis going to happen."Although audiences were not always aware of the exact names of these themes, the action onscreenusually gave viewers ideas to associate with them, making the music programmatic by default.In the next 20 years, production developments enabled films to be produced at breakneck speed,necessitating speedy score composition. Sometimes there was simply not enough time to compose aunique score, so film composers began to rely on "a large number of habits, formulas, and clichés . . .[including] the brass-blasting Main Title . . . the love theme, and the glamorizing of heroines by the useof beautiful string motifs . . . the underscoring of natural cataclysms such as earthquakes and forestfires." (Shipon, 2006)4|Page
  6. 6. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOFILM COMPOSERSThe process of composing a film score depends upon a number of factors; institutional practices andthe circulation of power within them (large studio systems like Hollywood, where composers are partof an assembly-line mode of production, versus Bollywood, where music directors developedconsiderable freedom in the production of the score, and many enjoy celebrity status); therelationships at work on a given film (longtime collaborations between directors and composers, forexample, Steven Speilbery and John Williams, or Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Per Raben); thepower of the director and his or her interest in determining the musical score (Akira Kurosawa, JohnFord, Jean-Luc Godard, and Wong Kar-wai are just a few directors who have had an active hand inshaping scores for their films; and the individual personalities and proclivities of the composersthemselves (Such as the notoriously prickly Bernard Herrmann who insisted, ―I have the final sayabout my music otherwise I refuse to do the music for the film‖). (Kalinak, 2010)Famous Film ComposersJohn WilliamsIf you asked most people to name one movie composer,they would probably pick John Williams. Perhaps noother composer is so well identified with his work, be itthe theme from Star Wars, Jaws, Raiders of the LostArk, or any number of other blockbusters. Williamslong, productive, and rewarding career (five AcademyAwards) can certainly stand on its own merits. Yet hissuccess is tightly interwoven with the many fine films ofdirector Steven Spielberg, no slouch himself in theawards department (three Academy Awards). Thiscrisply-recorded collection of Williams music fromSpielberg films has a wide dynamic range and fullpresence, due to the excellent acoustics of BostonsSymphony Hall and an outstanding performance by theBoston Pops Orchestra, conducted by Williams himself. Theres a wide selection of music in this collection,ranging from an energetic rendition of "The Raiders John Williams.March" from Raiders of the Lost Ark to the lush Retrieved frommelodies of the http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ b/b8/John_Williams_tux.jpg5|Page
  7. 7. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEO"Theme" from Always, as well as the soaring "Adventures on Earth" from E.T. To get acrash course in the craft of this fine composer, go directly to "Out to Sea" and "The Shark CageFugue," from Jaws. Sit down and hold on tight as a light and airy nauticaltune transforms itself into a dark and predatory fugal theme that swirls through the entire orchestrabefore resolving into a crashing climax.If there is any problem with this recording, its that it cant cover all of Williams many fine scores, inparticular his more recent works. Still, its a great place to start!Howard ShoreComposers dream of getting acanvas as big as The Lord of TheRings to work with. Howard Shorehas delivered a massive work inthe romantic orchestral traditionthat is every bit as evocative andmoving as the glorious landscapesand massive battles of this history-making film trilogy. Throughoutthe entire trilogy Shore hascrafted, intertwined, and reworkedmusical themes that carry forwardthe emotion and action of thestory. Listeners love it, as the Howard Shore.soundtracks for the LOTR movies Retrieved from http://cdn.mos.totalfilm.com/images/h/howard-shore-will-return-to- score-the-hobbit-470-75.jpghave been regular visitors at thetop of the classical music sales charts. Theres little doubt that the music of these movies will be wellstudied (and often imitated) in years to come.With three excellent soundtracks to choose from it was difficult to decide which to include in thiscompilation. I chose 2001s Fellowship of the Ring since it is the starting point from which the musicof all the films flows. In Fellowship, the style and scale of the music is firmly established and most ofthe main themes are presented. Of course, theres no reason you shouldnt listen to all threesoundtracks! The London Philharmonic Orchestra, recorded at the famous Abbey Road Studio, tacklesthe music with real vigor, and the recordings invariably sound excellent, whether presenting light anddelicate passages or delivering massive orchestral thunder strokes. To see how well your system canreproduce dense and extremely heavy passages, go to "The Bridge of Khazad Dum" and see if yoursubwoofer can keep up with the pounding percussion.6|Page
  8. 8. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOThomas NewmanIll be the first to admit that this one of my favorite movies of the 1990s, and Thomas (cousin ofRandy) Newmans great music is one of the reasons why. The innovative and evocative score for TheShawshank Redemption (1994) mixes electronics, piano, percussion, and orchestra to create amysterious, moody, and dark soundscape — an excellent match for this prison drama.Shawshank displays many of theelements that make Newmansmusic so distinctive. For a quicktaste of this, go to the track"Shawshank Redemption." Listencarefully as eerie synthesized andsampled effects loom behind thedark, slow-moving melody, thenallow yourself to be swept up as themusic rises to a climax, only to fadeaway as enigmatically as itappeared. Although Newmans useof electronic effects and odd-sounding combinations of Thomas Newman.instruments is a hallmark of his Retrieved from: http://amuse.laurakress.com/wp-work, he can also craft a fine includes/images/wlw/ThomasNewman_ADEA/thomas_newman2.jpgmelody. Listen to the affecting andsentimental "End Title" — a nice piece of "Americana" style composing. The album will provide anexcellent test of your systems ability to reproduce quiet passages with depth and detail. To reallyexperience the full effect of Newmans music, program your CD player to skip tracks 6, 12, and 16 —these tracks are non-original pieces of source music that are important to the story of the film, butseem out of place next to Newmans music. By the end, youll feel youve completed a rewardingjourney, guided by a talented composer. (Nail, 2004)7|Page
  9. 9. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEODESIGN RATIONALEAs soon as I had chosen my topic on ‗Music in Film and Video‘, I knew the page layout and theme Iwanted to go with. I wanted a classical look, to go with the classical nature of film scoring, with an inyour face, modern twist. I also made sure I took into account readability, and my target audience tokeep the reader interested.First I chose the colour scheme, an off yellow being my first choice as I associate it with the sepiatone you‘d find in some of the first colour films. I then chose a bluey-green colour to reflect themodern colour of films, as popular movies like Twilight use a similar looking colour effect in theirmovies (Robsessed, 2008). When first researching the topic, I came across a website called FilmScore Monthy (Film Score Monthly, 2001), which used a similar sepia yellow colour scheme, mixedwith a red colour (a common colour associated with movie theatres). I thought the yellow worked well,but the red over powered it too much, hence why I chose a cooler, and more relatable colour to gowith the sepia yellow.To add to this colour scheme, for the cover page and page borders, I added a cracked effect using abrush in photoshop, to decaying, old timely effect, but also an effect used a lot by modern graphicdesigners.When choosing the font, I wanted a clear and easy to read sans serif font, so chose a default text inMS Word, Franklin Gothic Medium. But to introduce something different, I wanted the headings to bea different font not in the default list, and went with Orbon Black ITC. Again it is a sans serif to keep itto one look (I don‘t like mixing serif‘s and sans serif‘s), and I thought it was quite bold and stood outwell over the body text.For the page layout I kept to the A4 paper size as it‘s the perfect size to keep one subject to a pagewith a picture or two and a big enough heading. To keep a linking theme throughout the report, Iincluded a top border at the top, which was cropped from the front cover image. I also added atransparent background with the heading title on each page, to fill any blank spaces on the pagesthat didn‘t have enough content to fill the full page. I used single coloumns text layout to work withthe narrow A4 portrait page layout, as I believe 2 or more coloumn layouts are best used for widerpage sizes.As film scoring is usually associated with an older generation, I wanted to give the layout a classicallook, but as this may also be used in a teaching environment, I also wanted it to appeal to a youngergeneration of students.In keeping with these design techniques, I was able to achieve the look I was going for, and believe itis quite pleasing on the eye, while also making it clear and simple to read for the target audience.8|Page
  10. 10. CM1108 MUSIC IN FILM AND VIDEOREFERENCESFilm Score Monthly. (2001). Retrieved from http://www.filmscoremonthly.comRobsessed. (2008, August 11). Retrieved from http://www.robsessedpattinson.com/2008/11/twilight-clip-forrest- scene-hq-screen.htmlKalinak, K. (2010). Film Music: A Very Short Introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Nail, K. (2004). 10 Great Movie Composers. Retrieved from Crutchfield: http://www.crutchfield.com/S- T17szUDNVoD/learn/reviews/20040427/movie_composers.htmlShipon, J. (2006). History of Music in Film: Analysis of How & Why Film Scores Enhance the Emotional Import of Films: Citizen Kane. Retrieved from Associated Content: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/31632/history_of_music_in_film_analysis_of.html?cat=79|Page

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