INTRODUCTION TOANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY HS 220 - Whitworth University
ORGANIZATIONChemical COMMON Cells THEME Tissues Each layer of complexity involves Organs a group of relatedSystems units from preceding layer.Organism
CHEMICAL LEVEL• Smallest unit of an element that exhibits properties of that element. • C, H, O, and N are most prevalent in living organisms.• Many atoms are considered “micronutrients,” such as trace minerals and vitamins... • Vitamins A, C, E, Iron, Calcium, Chromium, etc.
CHEMICAL LEVEL• Atoms can exchange or share electrons to combine and form larger compounds and molecules. • Important molecules: Water (H2O), Carbohydrates (glucose), Lipids (cholesterol, steroids), Proteins (enzymes, hemoglobin), nucleotides (DNA, RNA), ATP, and Caffeine!
CELLS• Smallest unit of life• Current cell theory... • All living things composed of cells. • All cells arise from preexisting cells via cell division. • Contain hereditary material, which passes to other cells during cell division. • Chemical composition is similar between cells. • Metabolic processes associated with life occur within cells.
TISSUES• Despite commonalities in structure, cells vary greatly in shape, size, and function.• Groups of cells with similar function comprise tissues. • Four main types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
ORGANS• Tissues working together to accomplish a speciﬁc purpose. • Examples include skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, etc.
SYSTEMS• Organs with the same general function. • Examples include: Muscular Skeletal Nervous Endocrine Circulatory System System System System System
ORGANISM• The top level of biological organization
HOMEOSTASIS• A “dynamic equilibrium” produced by the ceaseless interplay of regulatory systems and mechanisms within the body.• Goal is to create a stable environment in which cells can function.• Disease is characterized by a failure to maintain homeostasis. • Diagnosed via signs & symptoms!