M9910117 2007


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M9910117 2007

  1. 1. A taxonomy for analysis of<br />tangible interface<br />-可觸知介面分析-<br />By Kenneth P. Fishkin<br />
  2. 2. Defining TUIs(可觸知使用者介面)<br />At CHI 1997, Hiroshi Ishii & Brett Ullmer:“Tangible User Interfaces” (TUIs) =<br />user interfaces that “augment the real physical world by coupling digital information to everyday physical objects and environments”.<br />-Narrower defination=<br />No distinction between input and output.<br />
  3. 3. Kenneth P. Fishkin’sFramework<br />Someinput eventoccurs. This input event is typically a physical manipulation performed by a user with their hands on some “everyday physical object”, such as tilting, shaking, squeezing, pushing, or most often moving. <br />A computer system sensesthis input event, and alters its state.<br />The system provides feedback. This output eventis via a change in the physical nature of some object – it alters its display surface, grows, shrinks, makes a sound, gives haptic feedback, etc. <br />
  4. 4. Ataxonomy for analysis<br />Use metaphor(譬喻) and embodiment (體現) as it two axes<br />-Embodiment (體現)<br />1.Reflects how closely output is tied to input<br />2.Does the user have the illusion of the system state being “inside” the<br />object that is manipulated?<br />3.Fishkin proposes a four-level scale<br /><ul><li>Full
  5. 5. Nearby
  6. 6. Environmental
  7. 7. Distant</li></li></ul><li>Ataxonomy for analysis<br />Use metaphor(譬喻) and embodiment (體現) as it two axes<br />-Embodiment (體現)<br />1.Full-the output device is input device. The state of the divice<br /> is fully embodied in the device.<br />2.Nearby-The output takes place near the input object<br />3.Environment-The output is ’’around’’ the user , typically in<br /> audio.<br />4.Distant- The output is ’’over there’’ , on another screen , or<br /> even another room.<br />
  8. 8. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br /> 1.Full-Gummi:bending<br />
  9. 9. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />1.Full-Platybus Amoeba: petting pet<br />Platypus Amoeba emits small noises and a faint glow until a hand is moved over the soft skin and Platy gives a pleasant coo. Petting Platy has made it happy. What will more petting do? Perhaps you excite Platy and are rewarded with a display of colors or maybe it is displeased and truculent. Platy's reactions give you information as you use petting to interface with Platy and understand how Platy wants to be petted.<br />
  10. 10. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-I/O Brush: the world as the palette<br />
  11. 11. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-I/O Brush: the world as the palette<br />Robust design<br />Pressure sensing<br />Paint history<br />Paint palette<br />Orientation sensing<br />
  12. 12. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-I/O Brush: the world as the palette<br />http://tmg-video.media.mit.edu/iobrush/iobrush_350x240.mpg<br />
  13. 13. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-metaDESK<br />“PassiveLens”<br />“ActiveLens”<br />“The Great Dome”<br />“Phicon(物理像)”<br />“Instrument”<br />http://tangible.media.mit.edu/projects/metadesk/metadesk_352x240.mpg<br />
  14. 14. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-metaDESK<br />input: rotation and translation<br />Input object: indicative of a building<br />output : altered display of the workspace<br />output object : augmented desktop<br />
  15. 15. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-photo cube<br />
  16. 16. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-photo cube<br />input: spatial motion with orientation<br />Input object: one everyday object<br />output : altered display<br />output object : non-everyday object<br />
  17. 17. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />2.Nearby-Bricks<br />http://tmg-video.media.mit.edu/bricks/bricks_240x160.mpg<br />Ishii, 1995: Tangible Bricks<br />
  18. 18. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />3.Environmental -TooTown<br />http://tw.videos.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=TooTown&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp&fr2=tab-web&vid=0001311141943<br />
  19. 19. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />3.Environmental -TooTown<br />input: change of position<br />Input object: two representative objects<br />output : audio changes<br />
  20. 20. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />4.Distant –TV Remote Control, Doll’s Head<br />
  21. 21. Ataxonomy for analysis-embodiment (體現)<br />5. Nearby& Environmental–PingPongPlus(Ishii et al., 1999)<br />Full & Environmental -Platypus Amoeba<br />Makes sounds  Environmental<br />Responds to patting  Full<br />http://tmg-video.media.mit.edu/pingpongplus/pingpongplus_240x160.mpg<br />
  22. 22. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />“figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or<br />idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them”<br />(Merriam-Webster)<br /><ul><li>“drown in money”</li></ul>Can use a variety of attributes: shape, size, color, weight, smell, texture, …<br />Here: Is the system effect of a user action analogous to the real-world effect of<br />similar actions?<br />Fishkin proposes two sub-dimensions:<br /><ul><li>Shape of object  “metaphor of noun”
  23. 23. Motion of object  “metaphor of verb”</li></li></ul><li>Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-No metaphor<br />Analogy: command-line interface=no correlation<br />Examples:<br />The BitBall<br />Programmable Beads<br />
  24. 24. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Noun metaphor<br />Analogy : An<X> in our system is like an <X>in the real word=Object<br /> looks like the real thing<br />Actions are at most weakly related to real-world actions=They share<br />the same action<br />
  25. 25. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Noun metaphor ex.<br />1.Navigational blocks<br />2.Tagged objects<br />
  26. 26. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Verb metaphor<br />Analogy : <X>-ingin our system is <X>-ing in the real word<br />=Object acts like thereal thing<br />Shape of object irrelevant<br />
  27. 27. Shaking erases screen<br />Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Verb metaphor ex.<br />1.Shakepad<br />
  28. 28. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Noun & Verb metaphor ex.<br />Analogy : <X>-ing amn<A>in our system is like <X>-ingsomething<br /><A>-ish inthe real word<br />1.Urp<br />2.TooTown<br />3.Drag-and-Drop<br />
  29. 29. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Full metaphor ex.<br />Analogy : Really Direct Manipulation= The virtual system is the physical system<br />1.Illuminating Clay <br />
  30. 30. Ataxonomy for analysis-Metaphor (譬喻)<br />-Applications May Span Several Levels.<br />1.Barney system- Peek-A-Boo<br />2.Doll’s head<br />3.Bookmark URL<br />
  31. 31. Culture anthropology<br />-The cognitive of color RED<br />Certain Western culture-danger (analogized to blood)<br />China-vitality & happiness (analogized to fire)<br />Japan-warmth & light (analogized to sun)<br />India-none<br />Cognitive psychology<br />Evolution of cognition<br />Industrial design<br />Philosophy of science<br />
  32. 32. None<br />Verb<br />Nounandverb<br />Full<br />Noun<br />Metaphor<br />Embodiment<br />Full<br />Nearby<br />Environment<br />Distant<br />
  33. 33. Utility of the taxonomy <br />Comparing with other taxonomies<br /><ul><li>Increased understanding of the design space</li></ul>Helps in comparing characteristics of different designs<br />Helps in finding missed possibilities<br />Shows evolution of designs<br />
  34. 34. Utility of the taxonomy <br />Containers: “generic objects used to move information between<br />different devices or platforms.”<br />Tools: “things which actively manipulate digital information.”<br />Tokens: “objects that physically resemble the information they<br />represent.”<br />
  35. 35. None<br />Verb<br />Nounandverb<br />Full<br />Noun<br />Metaphor<br />Embodiment<br />Tokens<br />Tokens<br />Full<br />Nearby<br />Tools<br />Environment<br />?<br />Distant<br />Utility of the taxonomy <br />?<br />Containers<br />Tools<br />33<br />
  36. 36. LiveWire<br />Bus Mobile<br />Calm Computing<br />No physical input from the user<br />Examples (distant embodiment)<br />34<br />
  37. 37. Calm Computing<br />Metaphorical level<br /><ul><li>More  lower cognitive overhead
  38. 38. Less  increased reusability, fewer limitations</li></ul>Do you need a physical gizmo for every virtual widget?<br /><ul><li>Lose flexibility of virtual world
  39. 39. Research question: how to findthe right mix ofphysical & virtual?</li></ul>35<br />
  40. 40. Evolution of the field<br />-StoryMat<br />Scenario<br /><ul><li>Children interact with a physical deviceon a play mat.
  41. 41. As they move the device about, and tella story out loud, the story is recorded.
  42. 42. At a later time, the story can be played back, with the audio being reproduced, and the video being done by a projected animation.</li></ul>Categorization<br /><ul><li>Embodiment of “environment” (the audio feedback) and “nearby” (the video)
  43. 43. Metaphor of “noun and verb” (moving a toy in the physical world later moves a projected replica of the toy in that same physical world).</li></ul>36<br />
  44. 44. Evolution of the field<br />-Curlybot<br />Scenario<br /><ul><li>As they move the device about, the motions</li></ul> are recorded.<br /><ul><li>At a later time, the motion can be played </li></ul>back.<br />Categorization<br /><ul><li>Embodiment of “full”(it reproduces its early motion)
  45. 45. Metaphor of “noun and verb” (moving a toy in the physical world later ,the toy move itself in that physical world).</li></ul>37<br />
  46. 46. Evolution of the field<br />-Curlybot<br />1.Creating a programming tool for children(> 4 years)<br />2.Tangibility<br />3.Supports development of mathematical thinking<br />4.Demonstrate creation of geometrical shapes fromsimple elements<br />5.Supports immediate testing of ideas<br />38<br />
  47. 47. Evolution of the field<br />-Tobobo<br />Categorization<br /><ul><li>Embodiment of “full”
  48. 48. Metaphor of “full” (not just repeat a path ,to imitate– it “learns to move”).</li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOl_iQAcVhY<br />39<br />
  49. 49. Tangible workbench<br />The Actuated Workbench is a device that uses magnetic forces to move objects on a table in two dimensions. It is intended for use with existing tabletop tangible interfaces, providing an additional feedback loop for computer output, and helping to resolve inconsistencies that otherwise arise from the computer's inability to move objects on the table. <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_BDtX4wxYY<br />40<br />
  50. 50. Control widgets<br />-ToolStone<br />Quantize possible positions and orientations out of full 6DOF space<br />8 Directions<br />On 6 different faces<br />Also track x,y position on tablet<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V32SnUnAe2E<br />41<br />
  51. 51. Control widgets<br />-DataTiles<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7imqHEqszo8<br />42<br />
  52. 52. Control widgets<br />-DataTiles<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7imqHEqszo8<br />43<br />
  53. 53. None<br />Verb<br />Nounandverb<br />Full<br />Noun<br />Metaphor<br />Embodiment<br />Full<br />Nearby<br />Environment<br />Distant<br />Evolution of the field<br />
  54. 54. Reference<br />http://tangible.media.mit.edu/projects<br />http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1023819/<br />http://www.slideshare.net/adorepump/tangible-interfaces-presentation<br />
  55. 55. Thanks for your attention!<br />