What the Audience Research Tells us About how to Build Consumer Demand for Renewables<br />Phase II Conference<br />Americ...
More about what we do<br />
What We Do<br />Social Marketing<br />
Road Map<br />Scope  What we will cover<br />Policy Support  Role of Knowledge<br />Consumer Support  Role of Norms<br />A...
Why “renewable energy” might be a bad phrase<br />
Use Romm’s idea to scrap “RE” term as an example of an interesting, but not yet research-supported idea <br />
We often talk about <br />reaching the <br />“general public”<br />
First Off…<br />Focus on “general public,” not B2B, etc<br />Examined existing academic research and polling<br />Three<br />
The “Value-Action” Gap<br />Why Do People Say One Thing and Do Another?<br />(Klick & Smith, 2010)<br />
Strong and Consistent Majorities Support Renewable Energy<br />
It’s Not Even a Very Partisan Issue<br />
Compare that with Climate Change<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, 2010 <br />
And yet…..<br />How optimistic are we feeling about RE?<br />
Two Questions:<br />What Determines Strong Policy Support?<br />What Makes People Willing to Pay for Renewable Energy?  <b...
Support for RE Policies<br />What Factors Influence that Support?<br />
Attitude Support for Wind is WeakBecause it is Based on Limited Knowledge<br />“The public’s understanding of wind power i...
Bottom line: People don’t appreciate the Downsides of Wind<br />(Klick & Smith, 2010)<br />
Experiment<br />Ask about RE support before and after exposure to more arguments<br />Result<br />After reading arguments ...
What’s a Possible Solution?<br />Inoculation Theory, perhaps<br />Present your audience with a weakened version of counter...
Inoculation Theory<br />“[A]cross a sample of 41 published and unpublished research reports involving over 10,000 particip...
RECOMMENDATIONS<br />1.  Provide publics with the basics on RE<br />2.  Engage the opposition. Coach people through.<br />
Willingness to Pay<br />What Makes People Put their Money where their Mouths Are?<br />
Americans admit they won’t volunteer to pay for their own green energy<br />Surveys of ratepayers consistently show they p...
The Free Rider Problem<br />We benefit from clean air, even if we drive a Hummer<br />This could be why there is a general...
Experiment<br />Presented four RE surcharge options<br />(government? X Voluntary?)<br />Result<br />The private, mandator...
The Study’s Options<br />One <br />Two<br />(Wiser, 2007)<br />
What else predicted willingness to pay?<br />Belief that others (both general public and friends and family) would also pa...
What are Possible Solutions?<br />Carefully target policies to publics <br />Leverage Social Influence in Messages<br />(M...
Social Influence<br />Fostering participation expectations<br />“It’s expected for everyone to do it.”<br />Social Norms<b...
RECOMMENDATIONS<br />1.  Push policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standards; or others as appropriate to audience<br />2....
Who are your most important audiences?<br />
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, June 2010 <br />
Faces of Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />
Alarmed Alice <br />Alice is completely sure global warming is happening, she believes it is human caused, and she feels p...
Concerned Claudia<br />Claudia is very sure global warming is happening, and she believes it is human causes, but she feel...
Cautious Carl <br />Carl is only somewhat sure that global warming is happening, and he is equally likely to see it as hum...
Disengaged Diane<br />Diane thinks global warming may be happening, but she’s not at all sure. She’s given it very little ...
Doubtful David<br />David says he doesn’t know if real or not, but if it is, he’s pretty sure it isn’t human-caused. David...
Dismissive Dan<br />Dan simply does not believe that global warming is happening – or that it’s in God’s hands - and he be...
“If you could ask an expert on global warming one question, <br />which question would you ask?”<br />What can the US do t...
Source: Yale & George Mason, 2008<br />
Activate the Alarmed and Concerned<br />
Convince the Cautions and Disengaged<br />
Reach out to the Doubtful and Dismissive<br />
Changes Over Time<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, 2008, 2010 <br />
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Renewable Portfolio Standard<br />“Require electric utilities to produce at least 20% o...
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Renewables Research Funding<br />“Fund more research into renewable energy sources, suc...
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Solar Tax Break<br />“Provide tax rebates for people who purchase energy-efficient vehi...
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Is Solar Clean?<br />
Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Is Wind Clean?<br />
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What the Audience Research Tells us About how to Build Consumer Demand for Renewables

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  • Cover slide
  • Explaining our background in terms of social marketing and the importance of audience research. It’s as important—if not more so—to know your audience than to know what you “want to say.”
  • Outline slide. Need a better “map” graphic.
  • No partisan divide (even after higher exposure, indicating really no partisanship) (Klick and Smith, 2010)- Climate change like abortion, as Hoffman and Forbes (in press) speculate.
  • Correct knowledge responses largely not correlatedroughly representative sample, N=610; overrepresents college grads, if anything making lack of knowledge findings more valid
  • (Wise, 2007; data from 2003 or earlier; nat’l survey experiment; N=1574)
  • (Wise, 2007; data from 2003 or earlier; nat’l survey experiment; N=1574)
  • It’s not just that people who have green friends also support.
  • ENCOURAGESOLVABLEKEY FOR THE CLIMATE PROJECT AUDIENCE
  • SOLUTIONWON’T BE POLITICALCAN BE CONSUMER ACTIVISTS
  • WHY IS IT BAD?
  • WHY IS IT BAD?EDUCATION
  • SCIENTISTS AGREEASK: WHAT SHOULD WE DO???ENERGY EFFICIENCY MESSAGE
  • IGNOREOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY MESSAGE
  • With the exception of the Renewable Portfolio standard, the Six Americas largely agree that RE policies are a good idea.
  • With the exception of the Renewable Portfolio standard, the Six Americas largely agree that RE policies are a good idea.
  • With the exception of the Renewable Portfolio standard, the Six Americas largely agree that RE policies are a good idea.
  • The Point of this slide is that The Disengaged, and to a lesser extent the Cautious, don’t have a very clear idea about how clean wind and solar are. Even The Doubtful and Dismissive get it. The Disengaged and the Cautious, then, likely make good targets for education efforts.
  • The Point of this slide is that The Disengaged, and to a lesser extent the Cautious, don’t have a very clear idea about how clean wind and solar are. Even The Doubtful and Dismissive get it. The Disengaged and the Cautious, then, likely make good targets for education efforts.
  • Q-R code is to the 4C website
  • What the Audience Research Tells us About how to Build Consumer Demand for Renewables

    1. 1. What the Audience Research Tells us About how to Build Consumer Demand for Renewables<br />Phase II Conference<br />American Council on Renewable Energy<br />December 8, 2010<br />Edward Maibach, MPH, Ph.D.<br />emaibach@gmu.edu<br />Justin Rolfe-Redding, M.A.<br />jrolfere@gmu.edu<br />
    2. 2. More about what we do<br />
    3. 3. What We Do<br />Social Marketing<br />
    4. 4. Road Map<br />Scope What we will cover<br />Policy Support Role of Knowledge<br />Consumer Support Role of Norms<br />Audience Segmentation Analysis<br />
    5. 5. Why “renewable energy” might be a bad phrase<br />
    6. 6. Use Romm’s idea to scrap “RE” term as an example of an interesting, but not yet research-supported idea <br />
    7. 7. We often talk about <br />reaching the <br />“general public”<br />
    8. 8. First Off…<br />Focus on “general public,” not B2B, etc<br />Examined existing academic research and polling<br />Three<br />
    9. 9. The “Value-Action” Gap<br />Why Do People Say One Thing and Do Another?<br />(Klick & Smith, 2010)<br />
    10. 10. Strong and Consistent Majorities Support Renewable Energy<br />
    11. 11. It’s Not Even a Very Partisan Issue<br />
    12. 12. Compare that with Climate Change<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, 2010 <br />
    13. 13. And yet…..<br />How optimistic are we feeling about RE?<br />
    14. 14. Two Questions:<br />What Determines Strong Policy Support?<br />What Makes People Willing to Pay for Renewable Energy? <br />
    15. 15. Support for RE Policies<br />What Factors Influence that Support?<br />
    16. 16. Attitude Support for Wind is WeakBecause it is Based on Limited Knowledge<br />“The public’s understanding of wind power is relatively poor.” <br />–Klick & Smith, 2010<br />
    17. 17. Bottom line: People don’t appreciate the Downsides of Wind<br />(Klick & Smith, 2010)<br />
    18. 18. Experiment<br />Ask about RE support before and after exposure to more arguments<br />Result<br />After reading arguments for and against wind, wind lost support<br />Analysis<br />Concerns about cost, property values crowded out climate change as a gender gap opened<br />Bottom line: A little knowledge is a dangerous thing<br />(Klick & Smith, 2010)<br />
    19. 19. What’s a Possible Solution?<br />Inoculation Theory, perhaps<br />Present your audience with a weakened version of counterarguments<br />Show them refutations, or help them come up with their own<br />(McGuire, 1964)<br />
    20. 20. Inoculation Theory<br />“[A]cross a sample of 41 published and unpublished research reports involving over 10,000 participants, inoculation treatments are more effective than no-treatment controls or supportive treatments in fostering resistance to attitude change.” <br />(Banas & Rains, 2010, p.302)<br />This blanket “immunity” extends to other counter arguments, too<br />
    21. 21. RECOMMENDATIONS<br />1. Provide publics with the basics on RE<br />2. Engage the opposition. Coach people through.<br />
    22. 22. Willingness to Pay<br />What Makes People Put their Money where their Mouths Are?<br />
    23. 23. Americans admit they won’t volunteer to pay for their own green energy<br />Surveys of ratepayers consistently show they prefer collective, mandatory payment schemes for RE<br />Which makes sense in an odd way…<br />(Farhar, 1999; Decision Researhc, 1992; Farhar & Coburn, 1999; Guild et al., 2003; Sloan & Taddune, 1999; ECAP, 1998; Ferguson, 1999)<br />
    24. 24. The Free Rider Problem<br />We benefit from clean air, even if we drive a Hummer<br />This could be why there is a general gap between attitudes and what people actually contribute<br />(Smith &Haugtvedt, 1995; Weiner & Doescher, 1991) <br />
    25. 25. Experiment<br />Presented four RE surcharge options<br />(government? X Voluntary?)<br />Result<br />The private, mandatory policy was most “purchased”<br />Analysis<br />Collective preference (“participation expectations”); <br />Dislike of government<br />Bottom line: People don’t like to go it alone<br />(Wiser, 2007)<br />
    26. 26. The Study’s Options<br />One <br />Two<br />(Wiser, 2007)<br />
    27. 27. What else predicted willingness to pay?<br />Belief that others (both general public and friends and family) would also pay <br />Women prefer government and collective payment more than men<br />Voluntary surcharge preferred by those not supporting RE, distrust government<br />
    28. 28. What are Possible Solutions?<br />Carefully target policies to publics <br />Leverage Social Influence in Messages<br />(Moscovici, 1976)<br />
    29. 29. Social Influence<br />Fostering participation expectations<br />“It’s expected for everyone to do it.”<br />Social Norms<br />“Everyone is doing it.”<br />Social Proof<br />And these arguments help to counter perceptions of a free-rider problem<br />
    30. 30. RECOMMENDATIONS<br />1. Push policies such as Renewable Portfolio Standards; or others as appropriate to audience<br />2. Integrate social influence into messages. Emphasize the growth.<br />
    31. 31. Who are your most important audiences?<br />
    32. 32. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, June 2010 <br />
    33. 33. Faces of Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />
    34. 34. Alarmed Alice <br />Alice is completely sure global warming is happening, she believes it is human caused, and she feels personally threatened by it. She also believes that people around the world are already being harmed by it, or will soon be.<br />Alice is only modestly more likely than average to be taking steps to reduce her energy use, but she is far more likely than average to use her purchasing power - and her voice as a citizen - to advocate for change. Alice supports a wide range of policy responses to address global warming.<br />
    35. 35. Concerned Claudia<br />Claudia is very sure global warming is happening, and she believes it is human causes, but she feels less personally threatened by it than Alice. She believes that global warming will begin to harm people around the world 10+ years from now. <br />Claudia is average in terms of taking measures to reduce her energy consumption, but well above average in terms of using her purchasing power to advocate for change. Claudia supports aggressive government policies, but is unlikely to contact her elected officials to say so.<br />
    36. 36. Cautious Carl <br />Carl is only somewhat sure that global warming is happening, and he is equally likely to see it as human caused or not. He sees global warming as a more distant threat – primarily a threat to other people – that won’t begin to hurt people around the world for another 25 - 50 years. <br />Carl is taking average steps to reduce his energy consumption, but isn’t involved in addressing global warming in other ways. He is, however, modestly supportive of a range of proposed policies.<br />
    37. 37. Disengaged Diane<br />Diane thinks global warming may be happening, but she’s not at all sure. She’s given it very little thought, doesn’t consider it personally important, and doesn’t feel she knows anything about it.<br />Diane has done relatively little to reduce her use of energy at home, but because she has lower than average income she is more likely than average not to rely on her own car.<br />Despite her low level of personal concern, Diane is more supportive than Carl of mounting a national response to global warming. <br />
    38. 38. Doubtful David<br />David says he doesn’t know if real or not, but if it is, he’s pretty sure it isn’t human-caused. David certainly isn’t worried about it; he sees global warming as a very distant threat that won’t harm people for at least another 100 years.<br />David isn’t in favor of a national response to global warming per se, but he is modestly in favor of a range of energy-saving policy measures, and is active in improving energy-efficiency in his home. <br />
    39. 39. Dismissive Dan<br />Dan simply does not believe that global warming is happening – or that it’s in God’s hands - and he believes that many scientists share his views. Needless to say, Dan doesn’t support any form of government action against global warming. <br />Although vigorously opposed to government action on global warming, he himself is quite active in making energy-efficient improvements to his home. <br /> <br />
    40. 40. “If you could ask an expert on global warming one question, <br />which question would you ask?”<br />What can the US do to reduce global warming?<br />How do you know that global warming is occurring?<br />What harm will global warming cause?<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, June 2010 <br />
    41. 41. Source: Yale & George Mason, 2008<br />
    42. 42. Activate the Alarmed and Concerned<br />
    43. 43. Convince the Cautions and Disengaged<br />
    44. 44. Reach out to the Doubtful and Dismissive<br />
    45. 45. Changes Over Time<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, 2008, 2010 <br />
    46. 46. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Renewable Portfolio Standard<br />“Require electric utilities to produce at least 20% of their electricity from wind, solar, or other renewable energy sources, even if it costs the average household an extra $100 a year.”<br />Chi-squared=1458, df=15, p< .01<br />
    47. 47. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Renewables Research Funding<br />“Fund more research into renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power.”<br />Chi-squared=1021, df=15, p< .01<br />
    48. 48. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Solar Tax Break<br />“Provide tax rebates for people who purchase energy-efficient vehicles or solar panels.”<br />Chi-squared=966, df=15, p< .01<br />
    49. 49. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Is Solar Clean?<br />
    50. 50. Global Warming’s Six Americas<br />Is Wind Clean?<br />
    51. 51. RECOMMENDATIONS<br />1. Aggressively target all audiences. RE is the vanguard of environmental messaging for skeptical publics.<br />2. Identify unique needs of publics for solution– information– and values–oriented messages.<br />
    52. 52. OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS<br />Mindset Begin and end with your audiences<br />Plan Consider their unique strengths and deficits<br />ActionConnect through appropriate messages<br />And messengers!<br />
    53. 53. Simple clear messages, repeated often, by a variety of trusted sources.Maibach’s formula for communication impact<br />
    54. 54. Thank You!<br />Edward Maibach, MPH, Ph.D.<br />emaibach@gmu.edu<br />Justin Rolfe-Redding, M.A.<br />jrolfere@gmu.edu<br />
    55. 55. All 4C reports can be downloaded at:<br />Climatechangecommunication.org<br />(Scan with your phone!)<br />Edward Maibach, MPH, Ph.D.<br />emaibach@gmu.edu<br />Justin Rolfe-Redding, M.A.<br />jrolfere@gmu.edu<br />

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