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Speech EC Revised

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Transcript

  • 1. THE ARGUMENTATIVE ENVIRONMENT
  • 2. What Is An Argument?
    Destructive Argument- A person disagrees for the sole purpose to win the argument. The “winner” feels superior. It is not positive and usually does not help matters.
    Constructive Argument- A person truly wants to find a valid solution to the disagreement. The goal is to arrive at a better conclusion.
  • 3. CLAIMS
    Claims- What the arguer is telling the audience to do or think
    Claims of
    Fact - something is, was, or will be
    Value- something is good or bad
    Policy- something should or should not be done
  • 4. RESPONSIBILITIES IN AN ARGUMENT
    Burden of Proof - providing "good and sufficient" reasons to accept the claim.
    Burden of Presumption - providing reasons to maintain the status quo, reject the claim.
    Burden of Rebuttal - the obligation of both sides to respond to each other. Remember, silence equal consent, in other words, you agree with the previous argument.
  • 5. PROOF
    Artistic Proof
    Ethos
    An appeal to the authority, integrity, or honesty of the speaker
    Pathos
    an appeal to the audience’s emotions
    Logos
    logical appeal or the simulation of it
    Inartistic Proof- Using persuasive strategies such as blackmail, torture, bribery… etc
  • 6. Stephen Toulmin
    Authored “The Uses of Argument”
    Evaluated Arguments and critiqued modern philosophers
    Created the Toulmin Model
    Identifies 6 aspects of argument that are common
  • 7. The Toulmin Model
    Grounds: what you have observed either first hand or second hand.
    Warrant: A general rule which links the claim to the grounds.
    Claim: The conclusion of the argument. What the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think.
    Backing: Specific support for the grounds or warrant. Where did it come from.
    Reservation: Reasons why the warrant does not apply. Exceptions to the rule.
    Qualifier: A word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim.
  • 8. Grounds
    Another word for data; this is the basis of real persuasion and is the reasoning for the claim.
    Provide reasoning
  • 9. Warrant
    These link the grounds (data) to the claim. They show that the provided data is relevant to the point the arguer is trying to prove.
    Claim
    Grounds
  • 10. Backing
    This is the support for the warrants and provides additional information and proof that answers various questions.
  • 11. Reservations
    Indicates the strength of the relationship between the grounds and warrant.
    Indicates the relativity of the claim in relation to specificity
    • Grounds------>Warrant
    Strong<-------------------------->Weak
    Is it a Universally accepted claim?
    Who all does it pertain to?
    Are the groundstruly supportive?
  • 12. Qualifiers
    Words or phrases that tell the validity of the claim. They enforce the strength of the argument to observers.
  • 13. Rebuttal
    A chance for the opposing view to give a case and respond to the Claim.
    Rebuttal’s can attack the Ethos, Pathos, or Logos of the Burden of Proof
  • 14. Examples
  • 15. Conclusion
    • Arguments typically follow a very similar pattern. Without any of the aforementioned parts, ones argument would be inconclusive and not valid. All are crucial to proving a logical and believable point.