What Is An Argument? Destructive Argument- A person disagrees for the sole purpose to win the argument. The “winner” feels superior. It is not positive and usually does not help matters. Constructive Argument- A person truly wants to find a valid solution to the disagreement. The goal is to arrive at a better conclusion.
CLAIMS Claims- What the arguer is telling the audience to do or think Claims of Fact - something is, was, or will be Value- something is good or bad Policy- something should or should not be done
RESPONSIBILITIES IN AN ARGUMENT Burden of Proof - providing "good and sufficient" reasons to accept the claim. Burden of Presumption - providing reasons to maintain the status quo, reject the claim. Burden of Rebuttal - the obligation of both sides to respond to each other. Remember, silence equal consent, in other words, you agree with the previous argument.
PROOF Artistic Proof Ethos An appeal to the authority, integrity, or honesty of the speaker Pathos an appeal to the audience’s emotions Logos logical appeal or the simulation of it Inartistic Proof- Using persuasive strategies such as blackmail, torture, bribery… etc
Stephen Toulmin Authored “The Uses of Argument” Evaluated Arguments and critiqued modern philosophers Created the Toulmin Model Identifies 6 aspects of argument that are common
The Toulmin Model Grounds: what you have observed either first hand or second hand. Warrant: A general rule which links the claim to the grounds. Claim: The conclusion of the argument. What the arguer is attempting to convince the audience to do or think. Backing: Specific support for the grounds or warrant. Where did it come from. Reservation: Reasons why the warrant not apply. Exceptions to the rule. Qualifier: A word or phrase which suggests the degree of validity of the claim.
Grounds Another word for data, this is the basis of real persuasion and is the reasoning for the claim. Provide reasoning
Warrant These link the grounds (data) to the claim. They show that the provided data is relevant to the point the arguer is trying to prove. Claim Grounds
Backing This is the support for the warrants and provides additional information and proof that answers various questions.
Reservations Indicates the strength of the relationship between the grounds and warrant. Indicates the relativity of the claim in relation to specificity
Strong<-------------------------->Weak Is it a Universally accepted claim? Who all does it pertain to? Are the grounds really that supportive?
Qualifiers Words or phrases that tell the validity of the claim. They enforce the strength of the argument to observers.
Rebuttal A chance for the opposing view to give a case and respond to the Claim. Rebuttal’s can attack the Ethos, Pathos, or Logos of the Burden of Proof