Chipre.Las Murallas de Famagusta,Parte 1 Caterina's bequest the walls of famagusta.parte 1
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Part one - The Walls of Famagusta (detail of a Venetian Winged Lion in the fortifications of Famagusta) Introduction These pages deal with the surviving monuments of the Frankish and Venetian rule over Cyprus (1192-1571). In 1187 Saladin the Great, Sultan of Egypt and Syria conquered Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VIII issued a papal bull (Audita tremendi .. - Having heard the horrible news..) which called for a new crusade (the third one). In April 1191, King Richard the Lionheart, who was one of the leaders of the crusade, sailed from Messina in Sicily to reach the Holy Land. Some of his ships were wrecked on Cyprus and the crews were maltreated by the men of Isaac Comnenos, the local ruler who belonged to an important Byzantine family. Richard subsequently seized the island and captured Isaac who was released for a ransom many years later. In June King Richard set sail for Acre where he joined the great Christian force which had been besieging this town since 1189. Richard remained in Palestine until 1192, when, after having vainly attempted to restore the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem, he reached an agreement with Saladin which allowed Christian access to the Holy Sites of the city. Richard sold the Kingdom of Cyprus to Guy de Lusignan, his vassal in Poitou, a region of France, who was the titular King of Jerusalem by right of marriage, as a compensation for having failed to reinstate him on the throne.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (1 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta The Senate of Venice seized this opportunity for counterbalancing its losses in Greece and Albania. Caterina was named "Daughter of the Republic" and James was forced to sign a statement by which Caterina inherited the kingdom, should he die without leaving a heir. In 1473, a few months after the arrival of Caterina on Cyprus, James died at the age of 33 and Venice sent its fleet to Famagusta to protect the young widow. Caterina, assisted by Venetian advisers, reigned over Cyprus on behalf of her infant son James III and after his death in her own right until 1489, when she was forced by her family to bequeath her kingdom to the Republic. Caterina returned to Venice where she was assigned the town of Asolo where she set up a small court. The background of this page shows Caterina in a drawing by Albert Durer, based on a painting by Giovanni Bellini. Famagusta: the Walls It was after the loss of Acre in 1291 that Famagusta rose to great importance as one of the main trading centres of the Levant. In 1373 the Genoese seized the town by surprise and it remained in Genoese hands until 1464, in spite of numerous attempts to recapture it by the kings of Cyprus.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (3 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Land gate The Venetians moved the government of the island from Nicosia to Famagusta and they subsequently strengthened its fortifications by building new walls which were able to sustain the impact of cannon warfare.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (4 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Views of the towers and of the moat Massive round towers and a deep moat were among the key features of the new fortification system; they were similar to those built at Rhodes by the Knights of St. John.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (5 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta A detail of the fortifications near the Land Gate One feature of the defensive system was the ability to rapidly move cannon and other war machinery to the sites where they were needed. For this reason even the highest points of the fortifications were made accessible to carriages and pack animals. The strategic objective of the fortifications was to gain time in order to allow the Venetian fleet to reach Famagusta and bring supplies and new troops.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (6 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta (left) Entrance to Castelo da Mar (Sea Castle); (right) detail of the relief portraying the Winged Lion of St. Mark, the symbol of Venice, wearing the crown of the Kingdom of Cyprus The new walls included a Frankish castle protecting the harbour of Famagusta, which was transformed into the "Castelo da Mar" common in many Venetian Fortresses in Greece, in particular in Candia.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (7 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Interior of the castle built by the Lusignans The castle is today known as Othellos castle, as holiday-makers to the many beaches of the island are more familiar with Othello, than with the Lion of St Mark. For their joy a nearby ruin is called the Palace of Desdemona. Othello in the novel by Cinthio written in 1565 and in the tragedy by Shakespeare (Othello, the Moor of Venice ) written in 1603 is a fictional Venetian commander of Arab/ African origin, as the reference to Moor is not precise enough for determining his ethnical origin.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (8 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Porta da Mar (Sea Gate) According to the traditional account which portrays Sultan Selim II as a drunkard his decision to conquer Cyprus was caused by the desire to secure the supply of a particular wine which was produced there. In September 1570 Lala Mustafa Pacha, an Ottoman commander who had taken part in the failed siege of Malta in 1565, with an army of 80,000 landed on the island and easily conquered Nicosia; he then convinced the garrison of Cirenes (todays Kyrenia/Girne) to surrender, thus ensuring his army with a good port for supplies. He started laying siege to Famagusta by sending a tin box containing the head of Niccolò Dandolo, the Venetian commander of Nicosia, to Marcantonio Bragadin, the Governor of Cyprus; notwithstanding the gruesome warning Bragadin refused to surrender.http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (9 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta Porta da Mar: detail of the decoration; the marbles come from the ancient town of Salamis, four miles north of Famagusta; the inscription says "Nicolao Priolo Prefecto" and is dated 1496 The Ottoman cannon fired on the walls of Famagusta for several months but the defenders refused to surrender; they had managed to resist for the whole winter and with the arrival of the good season they had high hopes on receiving help from Venice. The Republic however preferred to make an alliance with Philip II, King of Spain and Pope Pius V; this had a delaying impact onhttp://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (10 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta the gathering of a large fleet. In May 1571 Lala Mustafa Pacha launched a new massive attack with a larger army (thought to reach 200,000), but without effect. A new attempt was made by digging tunnels under the walls to place explosives. The losses among the Ottomans were very heavy. In July the attacks were repeated and the eldest son of the Pacha died in an assault which lasted 48 hours. At this point Lala Mustafa Pacha discouraged by the limited results achieved by his troops, stricken by the death of his son and ignoring the fact that the defendants had exhausted their gunpowder, offered extremely good terms for the surrender of Famagusta. The terms included: a) military honours; b) safe transfer of the troops to Candia; c) freedom for the rest of the population to remain or follow the troops. On August 1 the offer was accepted and the troops with some families embarked on Ottoman ships. On August 5, Bragadin and his lieutenants were ready to formally hand over the keys of Famagusta to Lala Mustafa Pacha. The meeting was accepted and at the beginning the Ottoman commander was very polite, but soon his mood changed and he ordered his guards to kill Bragadins lieutenants. Bragadin had his nose and ears cut off and two weeks later was flayed alive. He was quartered and the skin filled with straw was sent to Constantinople to be shown around. Lala Mustafa Pacha became then known as Kara (black/dark) Lala Mustafa Pacha with black/dark being a reference to his cruelty. A few years later the Venetians smuggled the skin of Bragadin to Venice where it is now buried in SS. Giovanni e Paolo. It is likely that Mustafa Pacha acted in this way in order to gloss over the fact that he had overestimated the remaining strength of the defendants. Two months later at the battle of Lepanto in Greece the Christian fleet defeated the Ottoman one. In the fight Ali Pacha, the commander of the Ottoman fleet, was killed and his head was placed on a pike and shown around as a trophy, thus twinning the horror of Bragadins death. See the other pages of this section: Famagusta - The Churches Nicosia Cirenes SEE THESE OTHER EXHIBITIONS (for a full list see my detailed list).http://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (11 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
Caterinas Bequest - The Walls of Famagusta To search this site you can use Searchhttp://romeartlover.tripod.com/Cipro1.html (12 de 12) [23/07/2012 1:18:15]
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