Food Energy Through Ecosystems

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Food Energy Through Ecosystems

  1. 1. Energy Flow in an Ecosystem copyright cmassengale 1
  2. 2. Energy Flow • Energy in an ecosystem originally comes from the sun • Energy flows through Ecosystems from producers to consumers – Producers (make food) – Consumers (use food by eating producers or other consumers) copyright cmassengale 2
  3. 3. Producers • Sunlight is the main source of energy for most life on earth. • Producers contain chlorophyll & can use energy directly from the sun copyright cmassengale 3
  4. 4. Autotrophs • An Autotroph is any organism that can produce its own food supply! • Autotrophs are also called Producers • Plants, algae, some protists, & some bacteria are examples copyright cmassengale 4
  5. 5. Niche of a Producer • Captures energy and transforms it into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms. • May be photoautotrophs using light energy (e.g. plants) • May be chemoautotrophs using chemical energy (e.g. cyanobacteria) copyright cmassengale 5
  6. 6. Photoautotroph Producer That Captures Energy from the sun by: – Photosynthesis • Adds Oxygen to the atmosphere • Removes Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere Algae copyright cmassengale 6
  7. 7. Habitat of Photoautotrophs • On Land – Plants • In The Sea – Algae • Tidal Flats & Salt Marshes – Cyanobacteria copyright cmassengale 7
  8. 8. Chemoautotrophs • Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules such as Hydrogen Sulfide • Process is called Chemosynthesis • Often occurs in deep Called a Black sea vents or gut of smoker (thermal animals copyright cmassengale vent) 8
  9. 9. Tube Worms living in Black copyright cmassengale 9
  10. 10. Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. (e.g. animals) • Herbivores – Eat Only Plants • Carnivores – Eat Only Other Animals copyright cmassengale 10
  11. 11. Consumers Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. • Omnivores (Humans) – Eat Plants & Animals • Detritivores (Scavengers) – Feed On Dead Plant & Animal Remains (buzzards) • Decomposers – Fungi & Bacteriacmassengale copyright 11
  12. 12. Feeding Relationships Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from producers to various levels of consumers copyright cmassengale 12
  13. 13. Feeding Relationships • Food Chain – Simple Energy path through an ecosystem • Food Web – More realistic path through an ecosystem made of many food chains copyright cmassengale 13
  14. 14. Food Chain 3rd 1 order st 2nd Order Order Consumer consumer 4th Order Consumer Consumer Producer (trapped sunlight & stored food) copyright cmassengale 14
  15. 15. Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain: copyright cmassengale 15
  16. 16. Food Web copyright cmassengale 17
  17. 17. copyright cmassengale 18
  18. 18. Trophic Levels Each Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level. • Producers – Always The First Trophic Level – How Energy Enters The System • Herbivores – Second Trophic Level copyright cmassengale 19
  19. 19. Trophic Levels • Carnivores/Omnivores – Make Up The Remaining Trophic Levels Each level depends on the one below it for energy. copyright cmassengale 20
  20. 20. Ecological Pyramids Graphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic Level May be: Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers copyright cmassengale 21
  21. 21. Energy Pyramid copyright cmassengale 22
  22. 22. Biomass Pyramid copyright cmassengale 23
  23. 23. Pyramid of Numbers copyright cmassengale 24
  24. 24. copyright cmassengale 25

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