Current News!<br />Many Filipinos might have been pleased with President Noynoy Aquino’s performance in the first 100 days of his term—but not his former professor at the Ateneo de Manila University.<br />Unlike most teachers who would have been proud of their former students, Prof. Pablo Manalastas, math professor at the Ateneo, said Aquino has not yet done anything impressive. “I don’t see anything earth-shaking happening yet,” he said, adding he is giving the president “barely passing marks” for the beginning of the latter’s six-year term.<br />Manalastas is now with the Ateneo’s Department of Computer Information Systems and with the Automated Election System (AES) Watch, a project of the Center for People Empowerment in Governance.<br />Enumerating his economic achievements in his speech on Thursday, Aquino said investor confidence in the Philippines has returned. He added that more than $2 billion in foreign investments would be coming in and generating 43,600 jobs.<br />He also said that his administration has prevented the misuse of millions of pesos by certain government agencies by removing the allowances and bonuses of officials of government-owned and -controlled corporations who were appointed by the previous president. Likewise, negotiated contracts in agencies like the Department of Public Works and Department of Agriculture were reviewed to save more money for the government.<br />
Current News!<br />Manalastas, however, said former president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo might have even done better for the economy during her presidency.<br />“Although I did not support her, (I can say that) she enforced measures that helped the economy,” he said, stressing however that those measures—which included encouraging Filipinos to seek jobs abroad—remain controversial.<br />Manalastas also said Aquino’s achievements in fighting corruption are, for now, “just words.” “These should be accompanied by action,” he said.<br />He also expressed disappointment with Aquino’s behavior during the hostage-taking incident of August 23 where eight Chinese tourists and the hostage taker were killed. Aquino’s speech on his first 100 days did not mention the incident which became the worst crisis to hit the fledgling presidency. China had criticized the Philippine government for the latter’s incompetent handling of the situation.<br />“I do not like Gloria but she would have taken matters into her hands,” he said, adding he had expected Aquino to be “visible” during the crisis. Instead, Aquino appeared on national television during a press conference at 12:30 a.m. the following day. He narrated the events that led to the bloody ending, blaming media coverage and the outburst of the brother of the hostage-taker for the escalation of the crisis.<br />Manalastas said Aquino should have been more hands-on in such a situation.<br />But the professor’s unfavorable assessment of Aquino should not come as a surprise. “I did not vote for him for president,” he admitted.<br />“All of Ateneo voted for him but I didn’t. I met so many priests and nuns and they were all for Noynoy. I could not understand why they were all for Noynoy,” he said.<br />Explaining why he did not vote for Aquino, Manalastas said, “I had this idea that a president must be smart.” Resignedly, however, he said, “But as long as it’s not Gloria, it’s okay. But I did not expect much from him.”<br />
Current News!<br />Manalastas’s less-than-overwhelmed assessment of his former student may have something to do with Aquino’s performance at the Ateneo. Back then as a college student, he recalled that Aquino, though diligent, was an average student.<br />“I remember him very well because he got a C+ which allowed him to stay at the Ateneo,” the professor said. On a scale of 1 to 4 (with 4 as the highest), Aquino rated a 2.5.<br />“He was not among my best students; he just made it,” Manalastas said. Performing better than Aquino were his cousins Robert and Paul.<br />“The best Aquino student was Paul,” he said of the Aquino cousins who became his students at different periods. He had seen Noynoy’s sister Kris on campus but never became her professor.<br />Still, Manalastas observed that Noynoy had certain things going for him. “He was never absent. He was very well-behaved and very silent,” he said.<br />And so, “I had no inkling he was ever going to be president,” the professor said.<br />In fact, no Filipino probably ever thought that the low-key son of slain senator Benigno Aquino Jr. and the late president Corazon Aquino would one day be elected to the highest post in the land. Noynoy’s political star rocketed after the death of his mother who remained a beloved icon among Filipinos even though her presidency has been described as well-meaning but incompetent.<br />Now that Aquino is president, Manalastas said he would still like to see his former student do better for the country economically and politically.<br />“I am hoping he does well because our country needs a break,” he said, “We need a break, economically and politically.”<br />
The Change Starts…<br /><ul><li>Late in the Middle Ages, European rulers gained new authority, while the absolute authority of the Church began to be questioned.
At the same, long period of wars, epidemics, and economic upheaval in Europe came to an end.
A new spirit of optimism, confidence, and creativity emerged.
Fourteenth century: Developments led to the start of a remarkable period that is known as the Renaissance.</li></li></ul><li>Interest in classical learning inspires the Renaissance.<br /><ul><li>Renaissance (re-nuh-SAHNS)- French for “rebirth”.
Originally reffered to a new interest in Greek and Rome, which began in the 1300’s.
Changes Occurred in: Arts, Intellectual Life, and ways of viewing the world.
Lasted from the 14th Century through the 16th Century.
Influence continued even longer.</li></li></ul><li>Differs from the Middle Ages in Several Ways<br /><ul><li>New appreciation for the arts and learning of the Ancient Greek and Rome.
New interest in worldly matters, accompanied by a growing emphasis on human life and accomplishments.
Ideas and Institution of the Middles Ages didn’t completely disappear, Renaissance outlook became much like that of the modern times.</li></li></ul><li>Humanities Studied by the Scholars.<br /><ul><li>Scholars interest in Greek and Roman learning developed into the study of Humanities.
Humanities – Language(Latin and Greek), Literature, Composition, Rhetoric, History. And Philosophy.
Scholars believed that the Greek and Romans excelled in these subjects and that classical ideas were good models to follow.
Manuscripts – searched in Monasteries and Churches to restore, read and share with other scholars.</li></li></ul><li>Literature Excites Scholars<br /><ul><li>Scholar found Literature of the Ancients exciting to read and beautiful to hear.
They want to write as gracefully and speak eloquently as the Greek and Romans.
Humanists - Those who took part in the intellectual movement that grew out of the study of the humanities</li></li></ul><li>It all began in Italy.<br /><ul><li>Began about 1350 in the northern Italy city-states, which had grown prosperous from the revival of the trade in the Middle Ages.
Italian Merchants and Bankers had the money to acquire libraries and fine works of art.
They admired and encouraged art, literature, and scholarship.
Surrounded by reminders of Ancient Rome – amphitheaters, monuments, and sculptures – they took interest in classical culture and thought.</li></li></ul><li>Petrach lead to the discovery of classical Literature.<br /><ul><li>Francesco Petrarch – Italian poet – born in 1303 – lead the early development of the Renaissance Humanism.
Regarding ancient Roman times as a much grander period than his own day, he studied Roman Literature and philosophy and encouraged others to become interested.
In the process of collecting ancient manuscripts, Petrach rediscovered a number of Roman authors whose works have been forgotten during the Middle Ages.
He saw books as “welcome…companions…[that] encourage you, comfort you, advise you, take care of you… [and] teach the world’s secrets.</li></li></ul><li>Petrarch<br /><ul><li>He discussed the ideas of Roman writers and imitated their style.
He also wrote hundreds of love poems and in Italian.
Poems were more realistic in feeling than in country love poems of the troubadours.
Loved writing so much that he often worked all night long at his desk.
When a worried friend urged him to relax, he replied, “nothing weigh less than a pen and nothing gives more pleasure; it is useful not only to the writer but to others far away, perhaps even to those who will be born a thousand years from now.”
On July 19. 1374, Petrarch was found dead in his library, his head resting on an open book, his pen fallen from his hand.</li></li></ul><li>Renaissance emphasizes life on earth.<br /><ul><li>Petrarch sought to understand the thoughts and feelings of the Ancient Romans during his studies of Latin Language and Literature.
Approach different from Middle Ages’ Thinkers.</li></li></ul><li>Differences<br />MIDDLE AGES<br />RENAISSANCE<br /><ul><li>Scholastics had tried to fit the ideas of ancient writers into a medieval framework, using Greek Philosophy to support and clarify Church teachings.
Renaissance Humanists tried to understand the entire civilization of the ancient world, not just selected ideas.
Greeks and Romans as a guide to a joyous, successful way of life.
Medieval thinkers had regarded existence as a preparation for an afterlife; the people of the Renaissance emphasized living life on earth as fully as possible.
They took ancient literature as their guide to understanding human nature, the conduct of statesmen, the duty of citizens, and he meaning of beauty</li></li></ul><li>Renaissance thinkers study history critically…<br /><ul><li>The study of history was important for Renaissance Humanists.
Believed that history, like classical literature and philosophy, would help them understand their own times.
In their efforts to learn more about ancient Greece and Rome, they carefully examined and compared copies of ancient manuscripts.
Often they discovered mistakes that medieval scribes had made in copying the texts.
Occasionally they found that certain documents were forgeries. </li></li></ul><li>Renaissance thinkers study history critically…<br /><ul><li>This led them to question the works of long-established authorities.
Medieval thinkers had tended to accept Aristotle’s writings as unquestioned truth.
Renaissance humanists, however, said that Aristotle’s work should be seen as a product of the time in which he wrote.</li></li></ul><li>Politics are important in the Renaissance.<br /><ul><li>Many Renaissance Humanists were leaders of society and were active in the politics of their cities.
Like the Ancient Greeks and Roman, they valued public service and praised those who were useful to society.
They felt that an education in the humanities was a sound preparation for a rewarding life.
The skills the humanist sought to cultivate – eloquence in communicating ideas, effective public speaking, polished manners, an elegant writing style – were valuable ones for social and political leaders.</li></li></ul><li>Machiavelli takes practical view of the politics.<br /><ul><li>Political rivalry was intense among the Italian city-states and their rulers.
The Pope, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the rulers of France and Spain all were involved in struggles for power in Italy.
Renaissance political thinkers were ambitious for fame and power.
As a guide, they looked back to Roman History rather than medieval ideals.
They also turned to the advice given in guidebooks on how rulers could become more successful and skillful in politics.</li></li></ul><li>Niccolo Machiavelli of Florence<br /><ul><li>Wrote the most famous guidebooks
Cynical about human behavior and believed that a ruler should do whatever was necessary to gain and keep power.
In his book The Prince (written about 1513), he pointed out that successful rulers often lied, broke treaties, and killed in order to gain and keep power.
In politics, Machiavelli said, policies must be judged only by their results.</li></li></ul><li>Wealthy patrons support the Renaissance.<br /><ul><li>Renaissance life centered on the society, commerce, and politics of the bustling, prosperous cities.
In wealthy cities Florence, Milan, and Venice, the rulers, noble families, and high-ranking clergy became patrons, or supporters, of the arts.
Most renaissance artists came to depend for their livelihoods on wealthy patrons.</li></li></ul><li>Medici<br /><ul><li>The cultural center of Renaissance Italy was Florence which was dominated by the Medici - /MEH-dih-cee/ family.
The Medici were bankers who had branch offices in cities throughout Western Europe.
They became active in the politics in Florence in the 1400’s and controlled the city for most of the nest 300 years.
In 1450, Cosimo de’ Medici founded the Platonic Academy in Florence, and it became a center of studies in Greek Philosophy.</li></li></ul><li>Lorenzo<br /><ul><li>Best-known member of the Medici family was Cosimo’s grandson Lorenzo – 1449-1492- known as “the Magnificent”.
Classical scholar, a skilled architect and a talented poet who wrote in the style of Petrarch.
Leading patron of the arts, he hired painters and sculptors to create works of art for his palace, and invited artists, painters, and philosophers to his court.
Expanded the university at Florence to give the city’s young people an opportunity to study classical literature.
His agents searched Greece for ancient manuscripts to add to his library.</li></li></ul><li>Women<br /><ul><li>Women of the wealthy and noble Italian families also played important roles as patrons of the arts.
Many upper-class women were well educated in classical languages and literature, and some took an active behind-the-scenes role in politics.</li></li></ul><li>Isabella d’Este<br /><ul><li>One of the most remarkable women in Renaissance Italy was Isabella d’Este (DES-tay), who lived from 1474 to 1539.
As a child she and her sister Beatrice studied the humanities and learned to read and speak Latin and Greek.
At the Family Estate, their father translated plays by Roman dramatists and had them staged.
Their Mother was an art collector.</li></li></ul><li>Francesco Gonzaga<br /><ul><li>Isabella married Francesco Gonzaga, ruler of a small state in northern Italy.
As the patron of many distinguished writers and artists, she made her court famous.
A special room was built to display the paintings she commissioned.
Isabella collected many of the books just beginning to come from Italian printers.
Her own learning and her encouragement of the arts made Isabella known in her time as “the first woman of the world”.</li></li></ul><li>Encouragement of the Development of Talents<br /><ul><li>Renaissance was characterized by an intense appreciation of individualism.
The people of this time were interested in the unique qualities that made one person stand out from others.
Like the Romans, they were ambitious for fame and worldly success.
Like the Greeks, they believed human beings could achieve great things.
These attitudes encouraged a spirit of curiosity and adventure.</li></li></ul><li>Upper-Class Men and Women<br /><ul><li>The men and women of the upper classes benefited most from the new spirit of the times.
They had the wealth and leisure to develop the many talents expected in the ideal Renaissance individual.
This ideal was a person who not only was educated in the humanities but also could talk with wit and charm, create paintings and sculpture, perform music, write poetry, and essays, and be fluent in several languages, including Latin.
Men were expected to be good swordsmen, and both men and women took part in sports including an early form of tennis.</li></li></ul><li>Printings spreads Renaissance Ideas<br /><ul><li>The Renaissance was a time of change in technology as well as in culture.
One of the new developments was the printing press.
In the 1450’s Europeans first used movable metal type to print a book.
A German Johann Gutenberg, is usually credited with the printing the first book a copy of the Bible.
Most of the early printed books were religious works, but printing was soon used for other kinds of books as well.
By 1500 there were hundreds of printers, in nearly every country in Europe.</li></li></ul><li>Johann Gutenberg<br />
Printing Press<br /><ul><li>The invention of printing made books and new ideas available to a much larger audience.
It was many times faster to print a book that to copy it by hand.
Before printing, there were probably fewer than 100,000 books in all of Europe.
As printed books were also much less expensive than handwritten ones, more people could afford them.</li></li></ul><li>Printing Press<br /><ul><li>Moreover, many of the new books were written in the vernacular rather than in Latin, the Language used by scholars and clergy.
Many more people thus were able to read the books printing made available.</li></li></ul><li>Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe.<br /><ul><li>Printing helped spread the spirit and ideas of the Renaissance northward from Italy to France, England, Germany, and the Netherlands (Holland and Belgium).
The most respected and influential humanist of the northern Renaissance was Desiderius Erasmus traveled widely, meeting with the other scholars and encouraging the new interest in the humanities in Holland and Belgium, the German states, and England.</li></li></ul><li>Renaissance ideas spread to northern Europe.<br /><ul><li>Ordained a Catholic priest, Erasmus carefully studied both the humanities and Christian doctrines.
He sought peace and unity as well as reforms with the Church.
He wanted the Church to return to the simple religious devotion of early Christianity, but did not agree with the leaders of the Reformation who were breaking away from the Church.</li></li></ul><li>Erasmus<br /><ul><li>Great admirer of classical Literature
Encouraged Erasmus to begin his study of Greek
Wrote the book Utopia published in Latin in 1516, described an ideal, peaceful society, and so conveyed More’s criticism of the Politics, society, and religion of his time.</li></li></ul><li>Refferences:<br />A History of the World – Marvin Perry<br />http://www.photographersdirect.com/buyers/stockphoto.asp?imageid=658315<br />http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Machiavelli_statue_front.jpg<br />http://people.famouswhy.com/cosimo_de_medici/<br />http://dacostilla.wordpress.com/2010/02/27/amd-mecenas/<br />http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2003/jun/21/art<br />http://www.artandarchitecture.org.uk/images/conway/34576f4b.html<br />http://wemedia.com/2010/02/11/mad-ave-does-gutenberg-wrong/<br />http://facstaff.unca.edu/ekatz/Pics/Gutenberg.htm http://socrates58.blogspot.com/2009/02/luther-meets-his-match-part-i.html<br />http://sites.google.com/site/byuheroesofhistory/sirthomasmoore<br />http://ph.yfittopostblog.com/2010/10/09/former-professor-unimpressed-with-pnoy/<br />