(Social) Living Stone Age

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  • Homo Habilis Latin for “handy man” Discoveries in 1930s by Louis and Mary Leakey Lived in eastern Africa > spread north to Asia fossilized human bones found with stone tools and animal fossils Skulls – humans had a flatter head with a brain only 2/3 size; approximately 1.5 m tall Built shelters of braches and collected bird eggs and wild berries for food; hunted wild pigs Tools / weapons = rocks, braches, sharp stones No clothes Did not know how to use fire
  • Paleolithic- 1) People lived in small groups of 5-10 families 2) Nomadic to semi-nomadic (hunting and gathering) 3) close relationships between bands of people ie. Cro-Magnon society NEOLITHIC 1) People abandoned semi-nomadic life and began farming
  • 1) Beginnings of closer social relationships (arranged marriages with other bands, bartering for raw materials) 2) Beginning of stratification = emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes (age, gender, experiences) 3) men were big game hunters; women captured small game 4) women & children were gatherers (approx. 60-70% of diet came from roots, potatoes, fruits, berries) 5) Women made clothing from animal hides and nurtured children
  • Increasing knowledge of plants and animals allowed more control of food supply End of Ice Age brought a warmer, wetter climate which brought new wild grasses and grains As population grew, so did the competition for land Shift from semi-nomadic to the building of permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho, in Mesopotamia between 8000 – 7000 BCE) Trade by barter system was a crucial factor in the origin of cities ( obsidian – a volcanic glass was one of the most valued traded materials (tools, weapons, art) would be traded for farm produce Development of hierarchical class system Domestication animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs) More occupations emerged with more permanent cities and towns
  • The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings Over 100 European caves showcase CAVE PAINTINGS of deer, horses and animals which are now extinct Beginnings of cultural explosion in art as more tools, pendants, jewellery, and sculptures/ figurines of clay, ivory and stone emerged More advanced spiritual practices emerged as graves were found containing beads, ivory jewellery and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife
  • PALEOLITHIC Better hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons Better tools for skinning game, preparing food, sewing clothes Cro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planning Invention of the bow and arrow around 20 000 BCE made hunting more easy NEOLITHIC More efficient tools (sickle made of flint blades and antler; axes, hoe, copper use) which helped farm and make weapons and tools Domestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of food New time for leisure activities (art, music, sports, religion)
  • (Social) Living Stone Age

    1. 1. Living in the Stone Age
    2. 2. Examining History: Prehistory <ul><li>PRE-HISTORY - period before written history </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1.75 million years ago, earliest people first began using small pieces of rock as tools </li></ul><ul><li>Massive development of humans over years in 4 major groups: 1) Homo Habilis (2 million years ago) 2) Homo Erectus (1 million years ago) 3) Neanderthal (100 000 years ago) 4) Cro-Magnon (50 000 years ago) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Development of Humans <ul><li>Homo Habilis </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “handy man” </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern Africa > spread north to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>fossilized human bones found with stone tools and animal fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Skulls – humans had a flatter head with a brain only 2/3 size; approximately 1.5 m tall </li></ul><ul><li>Built shelters of braches and collected bird eggs and wild berries for food; hunted wild pigs </li></ul><ul><li>Tools / weapons = rocks, braches, sharp stones </li></ul><ul><li>No clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Did not know how to use fire </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Erectus </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “upright man” </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries of “Java Man” (Indonesia) and “Peking Man” (China) </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in Afria, south Europe, Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Skulls- humans had long, flat and sharply angled at back (between ape and human head) </li></ul><ul><li>Thighbone- identical to modern humans > walk upright </li></ul><ul><li>Charred animals bones found = they used fire to cook </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that homo erectus was a descendant of homo habilis </li></ul><ul><li>Make fire= first by coals or volcanic ash; later by friction= made life easier as they could survive in colder climates </li></ul><ul><li>Tools / weapons= bones, rocks, blades for carving, spears </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Latin for “reasoning man” </li></ul><ul><li>250 000 years ago= emergence of Homo Sapiens who evolved from homo erectus </li></ul><ul><li>is the species to which all modern day people belong </li></ul>
    4. 5. Neanderthals vs Cro Magnon <ul><li>NEANDERATHAL </li></ul><ul><li>Neander Valley- Germany </li></ul><ul><li>6 cm taller than homo erectus; thick eyebrow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Tools= knives, spear sharpeners made from chipped rock </li></ul><ul><li>Animals hides worn as clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in caves kept warm with fire </li></ul><ul><li>First to bury the dead (graves with bodies carefully prepared </li></ul><ul><li>CRO MAGNON </li></ul><ul><li>South France- clearing away earth from back of a rock shelter locally known as Cro-Magnon </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared in Europe 30 000 years ago following ice age </li></ul><ul><li>Brain as large as modern day human; approx. 2 metres tall with modern “faces” </li></ul><ul><li>Tools= slim, sharp edge blades, chisels, knives, spearheads, lamps (stone bowl with animal grease and lit fur or moss) </li></ul><ul><li>Animals bones and teeth used to make musical instruments, jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Cave paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Fierce warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Wiped out Neanderthals </li></ul>
    5. 6. Great Leap Forward <ul><li>35 000 years ago when changes brought about innovation, creativity to humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) </li></ul><ul><li>2 FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES OCCURRED: </li></ul><ul><li>Development of modern anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of innovative behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Production of crafted tools and more sophisticated weapons </li></ul><ul><li>development of trade for raw materials and ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of sculptures, paintings and crafted objects that showcased beauty and religion </li></ul>
    6. 7. “ Lithos” = stone <ul><li>Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Greek “palaios” means “old” </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Paleolithic age was 50 000 – 10 000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Greek “neo” means “new” </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic Revolution occurred between 9000 – 4000 BCE </li></ul>
    7. 8. Comparing the Stone Ages <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>small groups of 5-10 families </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic to semi-nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Closer relationships between bands of people ie. Cro-Magnon society </li></ul><ul><li>NEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>People abandoned semi-nomadic life and began farming </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural revolution was a progression of the “Great Leap Forward” </li></ul><ul><li>planting of crops </li></ul><ul><li>domesticating of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Better tools & weapons </li></ul>
    8. 9. Social Structure: Paleolithic Age <ul><li>closer social relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification = emergence of leadership and beginning of social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Social roles: patriarchal; men were big game hunters </li></ul><ul><li>women captured small game and made clothing; women & children were gatherers </li></ul>
    9. 10. Social Structure: Neolithic Age <ul><li>Increasing knowledge = more control of food supply </li></ul><ul><li>End of Ice Age = better for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>As population grew, so did the competition for land </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from semi-nomadic to permanent towns and cities (first city was Jericho, in Mesopotamia between 8000 – 7000 BCE) and more occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Trade by barter system ( obsidian – most valued traded material traded for farm produce) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of hierarchical class system </li></ul>
    10. 11. Religion & Art in Paleolithic Age <ul><li>The Paleolithic Age (Cro-Magnon) was the first to develop fine art as drawings </li></ul><ul><li>CAVE PAINTINGS of deer, horses and animals which are now extinct </li></ul><ul><li>cultural explosion in art as more tools, jewellery, and sculptures/ figurines of clay, ivory and stone emerged </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced spiritual practices with graves found jewelry and spears made of mammoth tusks buried with bodies = this suggests a ritual burial with a view of an afterlife </li></ul>
    11. 12. Caves at Lascaux [lass co] <ul><li>Painting at Lascaux Caves (south central France) found in 15 000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Painters used irregularities in cave walls to add a 3-D effect to figures </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings portray an awe and reverence towards animals which shows that for the first time people were expressing religious beliefs (rituals related to hunting magic; sacrifices of animals) </li></ul>
    12. 13. Venus of Willendorf <ul><li>Small sculptures such as the Venus of Willendorf were common to the Paleolithic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture features exaggerated curves (large breasts and wide hips) on female figure </li></ul><ul><li>Venus figurines are symbolic of the importance of fertility of a mother goddess </li></ul>
    13. 14. Weapons & Technology <ul><li>PALEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>Better hunting strategies due to co-operation and more lethal weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Better tools for skinning game, preparing food, sewing clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnons stored food over winter showing more planning </li></ul><ul><li>bow and arrow around 20 000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>NEOLITHIC </li></ul><ul><li>efficient tools which helped farm and make weapons and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication of animals to do manual work and the planting of crops freed people from the pursuit of food </li></ul><ul><li>leisure activities (art, music, sports, religion) </li></ul>
    14. 17. STONEHENGE <ul><li>Stonehenge is located on Salisbury Plain in England </li></ul><ul><li>Created 2800-1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Stonehenge is an example of a Neolithic megalith (megalith = Greek for “big stones”) </li></ul><ul><li>Exact purpose is unknown: religious rituals, agricultural markers or astronomical observatories? </li></ul>
    15. 18. Mystery of Stonehenge <ul><li>Stonehenge was built in 3 major stages over 1300 years (tribal people, Beaker people, Battle Axe folk people </li></ul><ul><li>Megaliths stones approx. 45 t and Heel Stone is 31 t </li></ul><ul><li>Great debate over the positioning of the stones </li></ul><ul><li>stones reflect an understanding of astronomy and mathematics (positions reflect sunrise, eclipses of sun and moon </li></ul><ul><li>stones could be a religious ritual to sun or moon gods </li></ul><ul><li>Others believe stones were built to show changing seasons for agriculture </li></ul>
    16. 19. Major Innovations of the Stone Age <ul><li>More complex human societies (from semi-nomadic to permanent cities; domestication of animals; leisure time) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of social hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Development of alliances and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage customs </li></ul><ul><li>Development of trade goods and routes </li></ul><ul><li>Religious rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Refined sense of artistic beauty </li></ul>
    17. 20. ALL THESE LEAD TO THE FIRST “CIVILIZATION”

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