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(Social) Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
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(Social) Darwin and the Theory of Evolution


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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Dec 27, 1831- English natural historian and geoplogist Charles Darwin stepped aboard the H.M.S. Beagle to begin a voyage to South America and the Pacific Ocean.
    • In the course of the 5-year voyage, he became convinced that species of animals and human beings had evolved from lower forms.
    • 1859- he published On the Origin of Specie
    • 1871- The Descent of Man
    • He argued that human and apes descended from a common ancestors.
  • 3. Hominids
  • 4.
    • Considered as the earliest humans
    • Lived 4 million years ago
    • After 14 million years, there were signs of physical improvements among the hominids.
    • The shape of their hipbone and the bones in their legs and feet hinted of their capability to stand straight.
    • The teeth were similar with those of man than those of the ape.
    • Has small skull.
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. Australopithecus
  • 8.
    • 1924, a fossil estimated to be 2.8 million years old wsa discovered in an excavation and was named Australopithecus Africanus.
    • Latin and Greek word mean “southern ape” by Professor Raymund Dart of Johannesburg.
    • It has very similar characteristics to that of the ape except that its jaw was rounded.
    • 1938, Robert Broom discovered another specie of the hominid in South Africa.
    • It has big teeth and jaw; estimated to be between 1.5-1.9 million years old, and it was called Australopithecus Robustus.
  • 9.
    • 1959, Mary Leakey discovered the third hominid species, and it was called Australopithecus Bosei.
    • Discovered in Olduvai George in Tanzania, East Africa and the fossils were estimated 2 million years old.
    • Composed of seemingly large human-like teeth and cranial bone fragments.
  • 10.
    • They knew how to hunt small or even big animals and glean bones of wild animals.
    • They also used primitive tools for cutting things.
    • They are believed to have acquired important skills necessary to protect themselves when hunting.
  • 11. Homo Habilis
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • Considered to belong to the very first group categorized as man-like, the Homo Habilis appeared 2 million years ago.
    • 2 years after the discover of bosei man, Jonathan the son of Mary Leakey discovered the 1.8 million year old cranial; the remains of an erect primate with a much larger brain than the Nutcracker Man.
    • Homo Habilis means “man having ability”
    • There are 2 types of Homo Habilis : Peking Man and Java Man.
  • 14.
    • Homo Habilis is characterized bi bipedality or upright walking but still with limited thinking.
    • Considered to be knowledgeable in making tools made of stone in caves where they lived as part of communal groups.
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • The first to have walked erect
    • Lived from about 1.5 million years to about 300 years ago.
    • First species that migrated out of Africa.
    • Able to craft a variety of stone tools and implements.
    • Learned how to use fire for the purpose of keeping warm, protecting himself against wild animals, and perhaps, cooking food.
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.
    • Between the last 750 000 and 500 000 years, the cave dwellers learned additional skills to help them survive the rigors of prehistoric times.
    • 1856- evidence of early migration was found.
    • They were skilled toolmakers and crafty hunters.
    • They also built shelters out of tree branches and bones but also lived in caves.
    • Has the capability to control their world.
    • They know how to perform religious ceremonies (e.g. burial)
  • 21. Cro-Magnon Man
  • 22.
    • Found in the southwestern part of France were the reamins of skulls resembled those of the modern human beings.
    • Learned to improve weapons and tools made not just of stones and bones but other materials as well.
    • Used bones as needle to sew his clothing which was made up of animal skin.
    • Attributed to the Cro-Magnon man is the creation of the famous cave murals of Lascaux, Southern France and Altamira in Northern Spain.