Chapter 8 European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750 - 1000
Timeline
Europeans and the Environment <ul><li>Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><...
The World of the Carolingians <ul><li>Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768 – 814) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepin (751 ...
Map 8.1: The Carolingian Empire
Governing Charlemagne’s Empire <ul><li>Governing the Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income from royal estates </li></ul></ul...
The Carolingian Intellectual Revival <ul><li>Scriptoria </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian Miniscule </li></ul><ul><li>Caroling...
Monks as Copyists
Life in the Carolingian World: <ul><li>The Church, Marriage and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monogamy </li></ul></ul><u...
Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire <ul><li>Louis the Pious (814 – 840) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Verdun (843) ...
Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries <ul><li>Muslims and Magyars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims attack in Mediterrane...
Map 8.2: Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
Castle at Les Baux Constructed as a Refuge from Saracen raids Eight Century – Provence, France
Replica of a Viking house in Denmark
The Emerging World of Lords and Vassals <ul><li>Feudalism  </li></ul><ul><li>Vassalage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lords and Vas...
A Knight’s Equipment Showing Saddle and Stirrups
New Political Configurations in the Tenth Century <ul><li>The Eastern Franks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Saxon dynasty </li>...
The Manorial System <ul><li>The Manor </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants and Serfs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of European populatio...
Map 8.3: A Typical Manor
The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization <ul><li>Michael III (842 – 867) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign attacks continue </li><...
Emperor Leo VI
The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe <ul><li>Invasion and Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Western Slavs </li></...
Map 8.4: The Migrations of the Slavs
The World of Islam <ul><li>The Umayyad Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu al-Abbas puts an end to the Umayyads (750) </li><...
Islamic Civilization <ul><li>Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Cities  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cai...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>How was Charlemagne able to unite and govern his large empire? </li></ul><ul><li>What role di...
Web Links <ul><li>NetSerf – The Internet Collection of Medieval Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Medieval Sourcebook –...
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(Social) Carolingan Empire

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(Social) Carolingan Empire

  1. 1. Chapter 8 European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750 - 1000
  2. 2. Timeline
  3. 3. Europeans and the Environment <ul><li>Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 10 percent of land cultivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low crop yields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving weather after 700 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant threat of natural disaster </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The World of the Carolingians <ul><li>Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768 – 814) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepin (751 – 768) deposed last Merovingian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlemagne from Carolus Magnus , or Charles the Great </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of the Carolingian Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army gathered each spring for campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carolingians crush the Lombards in Italy (773) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disastrous campaign in Spain (777) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Campaigns against the Saxons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bavarians, Slavs and Avars </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Map 8.1: The Carolingian Empire
  6. 6. Governing Charlemagne’s Empire <ul><li>Governing the Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income from royal estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts as administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missi Dominici </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System very inefficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help from the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne as Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope Leo III (795 – 816) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charlemagne crowned emperor in 800 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Carolingian Intellectual Revival <ul><li>Scriptoria </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian Miniscule </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian Renaissance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcuin of Northumbria </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Monks as Copyists
  9. 9. Life in the Carolingian World: <ul><li>The Church, Marriage and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce prohibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nuclear family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity and Sexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celibacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual activity permitted only within marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel and Hospitality </li></ul><ul><li>Diet and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread as the basic staple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork, wild game, dairy, eggs, vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gluttony and drunkenness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbs and Bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire <ul><li>Louis the Pious (814 – 840) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Verdun (843) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles the Bald (843 – 877): Western Section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Louis the German (843 – 876): Eastern Section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lothair (840 – 855): Middle Section </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergence of two different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between the three sons of Louis the Pious </li></ul>
  11. 11. Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries <ul><li>Muslims and Magyars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims attack in Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magyars settled in modern day Hungary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Vikings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germanic people from Scandinavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warriors and shipbuilders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland, England and France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Map 8.2: Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
  13. 13. Castle at Les Baux Constructed as a Refuge from Saracen raids Eight Century – Provence, France
  14. 14. Replica of a Viking house in Denmark
  15. 15. The Emerging World of Lords and Vassals <ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Vassalage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lords and Vassals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger horses and stirrups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act of Homage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fief-Holding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant of land in exchange for military service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmented authority in the ninth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subinfeudation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual obligations of lord and vassal </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. A Knight’s Equipment Showing Saddle and Stirrups
  17. 17. New Political Configurations in the Tenth Century <ul><li>The Eastern Franks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Saxon dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otto I (936 – 973) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Western Franks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Capetians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hugh Capet (987 – 996) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Saxon England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unification under Alfred the Great (871 – 899) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of monarchial government </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Manorial System <ul><li>The Manor </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants and Serfs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of European population had become serfs by ninth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working the demesne (lord’s land) and paying rents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lord’s legal rights over the serfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manorial administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade in Luxury Goods </li></ul>
  19. 19. Map 8.3: A Typical Manor
  20. 20. The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization <ul><li>Michael III (842 – 867) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign attacks continue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences with the West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Macedonian Dynasty (867 – 1081) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion of the Prince of Kiev, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Offensive in the tenth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basil II (976 – 1025) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Emperor Leo VI
  22. 22. The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe <ul><li>Invasion and Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Western Slavs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland and Bohemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion by Germans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Slavs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion by the Byzantine Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eastern Slavs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encounters with Vikings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Rus” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiev </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vladimir (c. 980 – 1015) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Map 8.4: The Migrations of the Slavs
  24. 24. The World of Islam <ul><li>The Umayyad Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu al-Abbas puts an end to the Umayyads (750) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Abbasid Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Capital in Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harun al-Rashed (786 – 809) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al-Ma’mun (813 – 833) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain and the Continuation of the Umayyads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abd al-Rahman (756) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatimid Egypt (973) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Islamic Civilization <ul><li>Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cairo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordova – Population of 100,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Science and Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and Books </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Natural Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry and Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ibn Sina (980 – 1037) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Encyclopedia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How was Charlemagne able to unite and govern his large empire? </li></ul><ul><li>What role did the Church play on family and everyday life in the Carolingian world? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were the invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries so damaging to Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between feudalism and manorialism? </li></ul><ul><li>What liberties did peasants give up in exchange for land and protection from their lords? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did the Byzantine world have on the Slavic people of Central and Eastern Europe and vice versa? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the factors that contributed to the flourishing of Islamic Civilization under the the Abbasids? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Web Links <ul><li>NetSerf – The Internet Collection of Medieval Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Medieval Sourcebook – The Carolingians </li></ul><ul><li>Wharram Percy: A Lost Medieval Village </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga </li></ul><ul><li>Byzantine Studies on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate </li></ul>
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