The Young Republic/TheCritical Period, 1788-1815
AdministrationVP - John AdamsSecretary of State - Thomas JeffersonSecretary of Treasury - Alexander Hamilton Domestic- Judiciary Act, 1789-Tariff of 1789, First Bank of United States , 1791-1811(Report on Public Credit, Report on Manufactures)- The Bill of Rights, 1791-Whiskey Rebellion, 1794-Hamilton v Jefferson (loose v strict interpretations ofthe Constitution)-Farewell Address, 1796 Foreign Policy-French Revolution - Citizen Genet, 1793-Jay’s Treaty with England, 1795-Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain, 17951. George Washington,1789-1797
Party- FederalistVP - Thomas Jefferson Domestic-11th Amendment, 1798-Alien and Sedition Acts 1798-Kentucky (Jefferson) and Virginia(Madison) Resolutions, 1798-Midnight Appointments"/Judiciary Actof 1801 Foreign Policy-XYZ Affair, 1797-Quasi War 1798-18002. John Adams, 1797-1801
Democratic-Republican-VP - Aaron Burr-Secretary of State -James Madison Domestic- Repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801- Marbury v. Madison, 1803-Louisiana Purchase, 1803-Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806-The attempt to impeach Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase, 1804-Aaron Burr and his treason trial, 1804-1807-12th Amendment, 1804-National Road (also known as Cumberland Road) authorized, 1806 Foreign Policy-1st Barbary Pirate War 1801-1805-Impressment, 1806-1812-Embargo Act, 1807-Congressional prohibition on slave trade into the US, 18083. Thomas Jefferson,1801-1809
Democratic- Republican-VP - George Clinton-Secretary of State -James Monroe Domestic-Non-Intercourse Act, 1809-Macons Bill #2, 1810-Bank Debates and the expiration of the First National Bank’scharter, 1811-The rechartering of the National Bank, 1816 Foreign Policy-"War Hawks," 1811-1812 (John C. Calhoun of SC and HenryClay of KY)-Tecumseh, 1811**War of 1812 (1812-1814)- Treaty of Ghent, 1814-Hartford Convention, 18144. James Madison, 1809-1817
Era of Good Feelings and the Era ofthe Common Man, 1815-1840
Democratic-Republican-VP – Daniel Tompkins-Secretary of State -John Quincy Adams Domestic-Construction begins on Erie Canal, 1817-Panic of 1819- Depression of 1819-1821-Missouri Compromise, 1820-Cumberland Road (National Road) debate andveto, 1822- American System, 1824-Tariff of 1824 Foreign Policy-The First Seminole War(Andrew Jackson), 1816-1818-Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819-Monroe Doctrine, 18235. James Monroe, 1817-1825
National Republican-VP - John C. Calhoun-Secretary of State - Henry Clay Domestic- "Corrupt Bargain"-Opening of Erie Canal, 1825-Baltimore and Ohio Railroad becomesthe first passenger railway in US, 1827- Tariff of Abominations, 1828-South Carolina demands right to nullifyfederal laws, 1828-Calhouns Exposition and Protest, 18286. John Quincy Adams,1825-1829
Democrat-VP - John C. Calhoun and Martin Van Buren Domestic-“Kitchen Cabinet”/“Spoils System”- Jacksonian Democracy- Indian Removal Act, 1830- Maysville Road Veto, 1830- Bank veto issue, 1832 (charter due to expire 1836)- The Tariff of 1832 and the nullification controversy, 1832-Tariff of 1833 (a Henry Clay compromise) and the ForceAct, 1833-Formation of the Whig Party/Second Party System,1832/1834-Specie circular, 1836- “Gag rule,” 1836 Foreign Policy-Black Hawk War, 1832-Worcester v Georgia, 1832-Second Seminole War, 1835-1842-Trail of Tears 1835-18387. Andrew Jackson,1829-1837
Democrat-VP - Richard M. Johnson Domestic-Panic of 1837-Independent Treasury Bill, 1840-Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign, 1840 Foreign Policy-Indian Removal Completed8. Martin Van Buren,1837-1841
Whig-VP - John Tyler-Secretary of State -Daniel WebsterDomestic-First Pres to Die inOffice-Pneumonia- 40 DayPresidency9. William HenryHarrison, 1841
Anti-Jackson Democrat ran as VPon Whig ticket-Secretary of State - Daniel Webster Domestic-Repeal of the IndependentTreasury-Bank veto issue, 1841-Commonwealth v Hunt, 1842 Foreign Policy-Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842-Oregon border dispute/54° 40’,1844-1846-Texas annexation 1844-1845(completed under President Polk)10.John Tyler, 1841-1845
Democrat-VP – George Dallas Domestic-Original"dark horse" candidate-Wilmot Proviso, 1846-failed Foreign Policy- Manifest Destiny/John O’Sullivan,1845-Mexican-American War, 1846-1848-Bear Flag revolt in California, 1846- Oregon boundary settled with GreatBritain, 1846- Oregon Treaty-Discovery of gold in California, 1848-Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo, 184811. James K. Polk, 1845-1849
WhigVP - Millard Fillmore Domestic-2nd Pres to Die in Office-Gastrointestinal Issues? Foreign Policy-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 185012. Zachary Taylor,1849-1850
Whig Secretary of State - DanielWebster Domestic-Compromise of 1850- Inc. FugitiveSlave Act, 1850-Harriet Beecher Stowe publishesUncle Toms Cabin, 1852-American Party/The Know-Nothings, 185313. Millard Fillmore,1850-1853
DemocratVP – William Rufus De Vane King Domestic-Whig Party collapses (ConscienceWhigs v Cotton Whigs), 1854-Republican Party established, 1854-Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854-”Bleeding Kansas,” 1856-Bessemer Process Invented, 1856-Sumner-Brooks Affair- 1856 Foreign Policy-Gadsden Purchase, 1853- Treaty of Kanagawa 1854-Ostend Manifesto, 1854- “Filibustering”14. Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857
DemocratVP- John C. Breckinridge Domestic- Dred Scott v Sanford- 1857- Lecompton Constitution-1857-Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858-Oil is discovered in Pennsylvania, 1859- John Brown @ Harper’s Ferry, 1859-South Carolina secedes from the Union,1860-Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, andLouisiana secede from the Union, 1861 Foreign PolicyFirst trans-Atlantic cable exchanged betweenBuchanan & Queen Victoria of Great Britain,185815. James Buchanan,1857-1861
Domestic-Fort Sumter, SC, 1861-Confederacy declares war, 1861-Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, andTennessee secede from the Union, 1861-Legal Tender Act, 1862- Homestead Act, 1862- Morill Act, 1862- Internal Revenue Act, 1862-1872-Emancipation Proclamation, 1863-Gettysburg Address, 1863- Proclamation of Amnesty and Recon, 1863-Wade-Davis Bill, 1864-Freedmen’s Bureau, 1865- Andrew Carnegie enters steel business, 1865- John D. Rockefeller enters oil refinery business,1865- Surrender at Appomatox, 1865-Lincoln assassinated, 186516. Abraham Lincoln,1861-1865 RepublicanVP - Andrew JohnsonSecretary of State - William H.SewardSecretary of Treasury - SalmonP. ChaseSecretary of War- Edwin M.Stanton
RepublicanSecretary of State - William H. Seward Domestic-Reconstruction Proclamation of Amnesty(Presidential Reconstruction), 1865-13th Amendment, 1865-Mississippi passes first Black Codes, 1865-Freedmen’s Bureau veto and overruling, 1866-Southern Homestead Act, 1866-Ku Klux Klan founded , 1866-Radical Republicans capture Congress, 1866-Reconstruction Act of 1867(Congressional Reconstruction)-Tenure of Office Act, 1867-Impeachment Trial, 1868-14th Amendment, 1868 Foreign Policy-Alaska Purchase, 1867-Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868-Burlingame Treaty, 186817. Andrew Johnson,1865-1869
Republican-VP – Schuyler Colfax, Henry WilsonSecretary of State - Hamilton Fish Domestic-First Transcontinental Railroad, 1869- First Black member of Congress, 1870- 15th Amendment, 1870-Ku Klux Klan Act (Enforcement Acts), 1870, 1871- Department of Justice created, 1870-The New York Times exposes William “Boss”Tweed, 1871-Big Chicago Fire, 1871-Credit Mobilier scandal, 1872-”Crime of 1873”- Panic of 1873- Civil Rights Act of 1875-Whiskey Ring, 1875 Foreign Policy-Indian Appropriations Act, 1871-Battle of Little Bighorn,187618. Ulysses S. Grant,1869-1877
RepublicanVP – William A. Wheeler Domestic-The Compromise of 1877-End of Reconstruction,1877-Great Railroad Strike,1877-Bland-Allison Act, 187819. Rutherford B.Hayes, 1877-1881
RepublicanVP - Chester A. ArthurSecretary of State - James A. Blaine Domestic-“Stalwarts” against “Half-Breeds”1881-Helen Hunt Jackson- A Century ofDishonor, 1881-Charles Guiteau shoots and killsthe president, 188120. James A Garfield, March 4to September 19, 1881
RepublicanSecretary of State - James A. Blaine Domestic- Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882-Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883-U.S. Navy Funding, 1883-Civil Rights Cases, 1883-Standard Time Zones, 1883 Foreign Policy- rights to use Pearl Harbor , 188421. Chester A. Arthur,1881-1885
DemocratVP – Thomas Andrew Hendricks Domestic- “New Immigration” peaks 1885-1914-Haymarket Square Riot, 1886-Statue of Liberty dedicated, 1886-Interstate Commerce Act, 1887-Dawes Indian Severalty Act, 1887-Division of Forestry created inDepartment of Agriculture, 1887-Department of Labor, 188822. Grover Cleveland,1885-1889
RepublicanVP – Levi Parsons MortonSecretary of State - James A. Blaine Domestic-Jane Addams -Hull House -Chicago, 1889- Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890-Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890-Immigration Act of 1891- Ellis Island opens, 1892- Populist Party established, 1892 Foreign Policy-Tensions over Samoan islands, 1889- Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890-Alfred Mahan, 1890-US triggered “incident” in Hawaii, 189323. Benjamin Harrison,1889-1893
DemocratVP – Adlai E. Stevenson Domestic-Panic of 1893-Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act,1894-Pullman Strike, 1894-“Coxey’s Army”, 1894- Wilson-Gorman Tariff, 1894- Silver v Gold Democrats, 1895-In re Debs, 1895-Plessy v Ferguson, 1896 Foreign Policy-First exchange of ambassadors between USand Great Britain, 189324. Grover Cleveland,1893-1897Second Administration
RepublicanVP - Garret Hobart, Theodore Roosevelt,Secretary of State - John Hay Domestic-Gold Standard Act 1900-Eugene V. Debs - Socialist Party of America, 1900-McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgosz, 1901 Foreign Policy-“New Imperialism”- The USS Maine, 1898- “Rough Riders, 1898- Spain declares war, 1898-Annexation of Hawaii, 1898- Treaty of Paris, 1899-Anti-Imperialist League, 1899-Emilio Aguinaldo- clash with US troops, 1899-Open Door Policy,1899- Boxer Rebellion in China, 1900- Platt Amendment, 190125. William McKinley,1897-1901
RepublicanVP – Charles W. FairbanksSecretary of State - John Hay, Elihu Root Domestic-Square Deal, 1901-Newlands Act, 1902-The Wright Brothers -Kitty Hawk, NC, 1903-Anthracite Coal Strike, 1903-“Muckrakers,” 1906-Hepburn Act, 1906-Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act, 1906-Panic of 1907-Aldrich-Vreeland Act Foreign Policy-Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901--Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903- Panama Canal construction, 1903-1914-Roosevelt Corollary, 1904- Russo-Japanese War Treaty, 1905-TR’s “Gentleman’s Agreement”, 1907- US troops -Honduras -190726. Theodore Roosevelt,1901-1908
DemocratVP – Thomas Riley Marshall Domestic-17th Amendment ratified, 1913- Underwood-Simmons Tariff, 1913- Owen-Glass Act, 1913-Federal Trade Commission, 1914- Clayton Anti-Trust Act, 1914- The Great Migration 1915-1925-Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916- Warehouse Act, 1916-Adamson Act, 1916-National Park Service, 1916- Keating Owen Child Labor Act, 1916- Creel Committee, 1917- Selective Service Act, 1917-Espionage and Sedition Act, 1917-Schenck v US, 1919-Volstead Act, 1919-Palmer Raids and the “Red Scare”, 192019th Amendment ratified, 1920-Sacco-Vanzetti Trials 1920-192728. Woodrow Wilson,1913-1921
Foreign Policy-US in Latin America, 1914-1916- World War I 1914-1918- Panama canal opens, 1914-The Lusitania, May 1915-Pancho Villa, 1916- Sussex Affair, 1916-Wilson Ultimatum, 1916-National Defense Act, 1916-Virgin Islands, 1916- Zimmerman Telegram, 1917- Revolution in Russia, 1917-US declares war, 1917-"Fourteen Points," Jan 1918-Treaty of Versailles, 1919-“Solemn Referendum”-1920Wilson Ctd.
RepublicanVP Calvin CoolidgeSecretary of State - Charles EvansHughesDomestic-First National Origins Act, 1921-Teapot Dome Scandal, 1921-1923-Harding vetoes veterans’ bonus bill-Died on West Coast Trip, 1923Foreign Policy-US and Germany bilateral peaceagreement, 1921-Washington Conference, 1921-192229. Warren G. Harding,1921-1923
RepublicanVP – Charles DawesSecretary of State - Frank Kellogg Domestic-Second National Origins Act, 1924“The business of America is business,”1925-Scopes Trial ,1925-Revenue Act, 1926-Charles Lindbergh , 1927 Foreign Policy-Dawes Plan, 1924-US troops in China to protect US interests,1925- US forces land in Nicaragua to keeporder, 1926-Kellogg-Briand Pact, 192830. Calvin Coolidge,1923-1929
RepublicanVP – Charles Brent CurtisSecretary of State - Henry L. Stimson Domestic-Stock Market Crash, October 29, 1929-Panic and Depression, 1929-1930s-Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930-Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act ,1932-“Bonus Army” March, 1932-20th Amendment Foreign Policy-Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 193131. Herbert Hoover,1929-1933
DemocratVP – John Garner, Henry A. Wallace, HarryTruman Domestic- Part 1-“The Only Thing we have to Fear”, 1933-Dust Bowl 1933-1935-1st New Deal 1933-1935 (1st Hundred DaysLegislation)- Emergency Banking Act, 1933-Federal Emergency Relief Administration(FERA), 1933-Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA),1933-Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 1933-The Federal Securities Act, 1933-Glass-Steagall Act,1933-National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)Creates NRA and NLB.-Public Works Administration (PWA), 1933-21st Amendment ratified, 193332. Franklin D. Roosevelt,1933-1945
-Securities and Exchange Commission, (SEC),1934-Indian Reorganization Act, 1934-Federal Communications Commission (FCC),1934-Phase II of New Deal 1935-1938-Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, 1935-Works Progress Administration (WPA)-Schechter v US declares NIRA unconstitutional,1935-Wagner Act (National Labor RelationsAct)(NLRA) creates National Labor RelationsBoard ,1935-Social Security Act 1935-Banking Act of 1935-FDR’s court-packing strategy to end thestalemate with the Supreme Court fails, 1937FDR Ctd.
- Depression worsens, 1937-House Un-American ActivitiesCommittee formed , 1938- Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938-Smith Act (Alien RegistrationAct), 1940-Congress of racial Equality(CORE) formed , 1942-Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act,1943-Korematsu v US, 1944-GI Bill of Rights, 1944Roosevelt Ctd.
Foreign Policy- US orchestrates a coup in Cuba, 1933-Hitler Takes Power in Germany, 1933- Japan invades China, 1937- Germany invades Poland; World War II begins,September 1939- “Cash and Carry”, 1939-France falls to the Nazis, 1940- Embargo placed against exports to Japan, 1940- Lend-Lease program with Great Britain, 1940-Selective Service Act, 1940-Hitler begins invasion of Soviet Union, 1941-Manhattan Project, 1941-Atlantic Charter, 1941- Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; US enters WWII,December 1941-Battle of Midway, 1942- Allied invasion of Italy begins, 1943-Yalta Conference, 1945Roosevelt Ctd.
DemocratVP – Alben Barkley Domestic- Truman sets up “Committee on CivilRights”, 1946-Truman sets up the Atomic EnergyCommission, 1946-Taft-Hartey Act, 1947-National Security Act, 1947-NAACP begins campaign to reverse the“separate but equal” doctrine, 1948-Fair Deal, 1949- McCarthyism, 1950-1954- 22nd Amendment, 1951-The Rosenbergs 1950-1953-McCarran Internal Security Act, 195233. Harry S. Truman,1945-1953
Foreign Policy- Hitler -suicide; Mussolini-executed; Germanysurrenders, 1945-US signs United Nations Charter in San Francisco, 1945-Potsdam Conference, 1945- Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Japansurrenders; WWII ends, 1945-Occupation of Japan 1945-1952-George Kennan-“containment”, 1946- “Iron Curtain” Speech, 1946-General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 1947- Truman Doctrine, 1947-Marshall Plan, 1947-Soviet blockade of Berlin, 1948/ Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) created,1949-People’s Republic of China, 1949-Soviets explode their first atomic bomb, 1949-Korean War/ MacArthur recalled in 1951, 1950-1953-US tests hydrogen bomb, 1952Truman Ctd.
RepublicanVP – Richard M. NixonDomestic-Brown v. Board of Education ofTopeka, Kansas, 1954-National Highway Act 1956-Civil Rights Act of 1957-Landrum-Griffin Act, 1959-Civil Rights Act of 196034. Dwight D.Eisenhower, 1953-1961
Foreign Policy-Joseph Stalin dies; Nikita Khrushchev, 1953-1964- Armistice ends the Korean War, 1953- Coup in Iran, 1953-Vietnam divided along 17th parallel, 1954-CIA mission established in South Vietnam,SEATO 1954-Warsaw Pact, 1955-Hungarian revolt; US does not intervene,1956- Suez Crisis, 1956-Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957-Sputnik, 1957- NASA established (the "race for space"),1958- Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba, 1959-U2- Incident , 1960-OPEC forms, 1960-Farewell Address- “the military industrialcomplex,” 1960Eisenhower Ctd.
DemocratVP - Lyndon B. Johnson Domestic-The “One Thousand Days” presidency-The New Frontier-23rd Amendment ratified, 1961 Foreign Policy-Bay of Pigs invasion, 1961-“Alliance for Progress”, 1961-Peace Corps established-Berlin Wall, 1961-Enlargement of commitment of US advisers to Vietnam,1961-”Flexible response”, 1961- Cuban Missile Crisis, October-November 1962-CIA orchestrates coup to topple Diem, 1963-Viet Cong (South Vietnamese Communists) activityintensifies in South Vietnam, 1963-Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty signed by US Senate, 1963-Kennedy is assassinated Nov, 1963, by Lee HarveyOswald35. John F. Kennedy,1961-1963
DemocratVP – Hubert Humphrey Domestic-“War on Poverty”/ “Great Society”, 1964-Civil Rights Act of 1964-24th Amendment, 1964-Medicare Act of 1965-Voting Rights Act of 1965-Immigration Act of 1965-25th Amendment, 1967-Riots at DNC in Chicago, 1968 Foreign Policy-Khrushchev replaced by Leonid Brezhnev, 1964-1982-Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964-Escalation in Vietnam, 1965-1968-Arab-Israeli war, 1967-Tet Offensive, 1968- My Lai Massacre, 196836. Lyndon B. Johnson,1963-1969
RepublicanVP - Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford Domestic-Landing on the moon, July 1969-Woodstock , August 1969-Kent State University shootings in Ohio, 1970- Jackson State College shootings in Mississippi, 1970-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1970-New York Times v US (Pentagon Papers), 1971-26th Amendment, 1971-Nixon takes US off gold standard, 1971-Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), 1972-Watergate break-in, 1972-Vice-President Spiro Agnew resigns, 1973-OPEC Oil Embargo, 1973-US v Nixon, 1974- Nixon resigns—first president to do so, August 9, 197437. Richard M. Nixon,1969-1974
Foreign Policy-Invasion of Cambodia, 1970-Détente-US lifts trade embargo on communist China,1971-Nixon visits China, February 1972-Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT),1972- Nixon visits the USSR, 1972-US withdraws combat troops from Vietnam,1972-Paris Peace Accords, 1973-Yom Kippur war of 1973 -Henry Kissinger’s“shuttle diplomacy”, 1973-1975-CIA orchestrates overthrow of SalvadorAllende’s regime in Chile, September 1973Nixon Ctd.
Republican1st appointed PresidentVP - Nelson Rockefeller Domestic-Pardons Nixon, 1974-OPEC crisis deepens, 1974 Foreign Policy-Fall of Saigon, 1975-Helsinki Accords, 197538. Gerald Ford, 1974-1976
DemocratVP - Walter Mondale Domestic- Three-Mile Island , 1979- Reverend Jerry Falwell establishesconservative Moral Majority movement, 1979 Foreign Policy-Panama Canal Treaty signed, September1977- Camp David Accords 1978-1979-President Carter and Soviet PremierBrezhnev sign SALT II talks, 1979-Iranian Hostage Crisis, 1979- Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, 1979-Iran-Iraq war begins, 1980-198839. Jimmy Carter, 1977-1981
RepublicanVP - George Bush Domestic-Assassination attempt, 1981- Air traffic controllers’ strike, 1981- Rampant unemployment, 1982-1985-Space shuttle Challenger explodes, 1986 Foreign Policy-Iran releases US hostages on Reagan’sinauguration day, 1981-“The Evil Empire” and “Star Wars,” 1983-Contra rebels against Sandinista regime ofNicaragua, 1983-Lebanon Crisis ,1983 /1984-US invasion of Grenada, 1983-Mikhail Gorbachev initiates reforms of“Perestroika” and “Glasnost” in Soviet Union, 1985Iran-Contra Affair- 198640. Ronald Reagan,1981-1989
RepublicanVP - Dan Quayle Domestic-Savings and Loan Scandal, 1989-1990-Americans with Disabilities Act ,1990-Rodney King riots in Los Angeles, 1992-27th Amendment ratified, 1992 Foreign Policy-Tiananmen Square, 1989-Revolutions in Eastern Europe, 1989-Berlin Wall comes down; Germany is unified, 1989-US invasion of Panama, 1989-1990-Iraq invades Kuwait, 1990-Collapse of the Soviet Union, December 25, 1991-Gulf War 1991-1992-President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsindeclare end of Cold War, 199241. George H.W. Bush1989- 1993