DEFINITION AND PURPOSE
• A claim is a
against the status
quo that is the focus
of an argument.
• A claim is not a
• Your are either for or against the
• A claim is against
the states quo.
• The claim has to be worded
against the current policy.
• The claim is the
focus of the
• It is the conclusion the arguer is
trying to convince his or her
audience to believe.
TYPES OF CLAIMS
• There are three types of claims:
• Claim of Fact
• Claim of Value
• Claim of Policy
• Each type of claim have a unique purpose and
explores a different argumentative topic.
CLAIM OF FACT
• Something is, was, or will be.
• Example: Global warming is a threat that must be
CLAIM OF VALUE
• Something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable.
• Example: Hunting of animals is a barbaric practice.
CLAIM OF POLICY
• Something should or ought to be done.
• Example: Obamacare should be repealed because is it
adding to the U.S. deficit and debt.
• Each person in an argument has distinct
responsibilities known as burdens.
• Burden of Proof
• Burden of Presumption
• Burden of Rebuttal
BURDEN OF PROOF
• He argues in the favor of the claim.
• providing “good and sufficient” reasons to accept
• “He who asserts, must prove.”
BURDEN OF PRESUMPTION
Providing reason to maintain the status quo.
Reject the claim.
Presented second in an argument.
This side has the obligation to argue for the current
BURDEN OF REBUTTAL
• The obligation of both side to respond to one
• Silence equals consent. If you don’t respond you
are implying the other side is right.
(RESPONSIBILITIES OF BOTH SIDES)
• Affirmative side
(agreeing with the claim)
• Burden of proof
• Burden of rebuttal
• Negative side
(disagreeing with the claim)
• Burden of
• Burden of rebuttal
• Now that we understand arguing with the use of
claims we can argue in a civil manner and get our
point across correctly and more efficiently.
• Claims have helped society to progress. Claims
have empowered people to argue against the
states quo and better our world through important
arguments in a mannerly excepted fashion.
• Once we have stated our claim it is clear and
simple what we are arguing about therefore
arguments will end with greater and more specific
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