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  • Orthographic- straight linesIsometric- one 3D sidePlanometric- shows all planes in the modelPerspective- shows multiply sides in one view, going back to a center point
  • Wireframe model- the object is made up using a series of connected linesSurface model- the model is built up by drawing surfaces of an objectSolid model- the model is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cubes
  • DarkestB pencilsSoft leadLightestH pencilsHard leadMiddleHB
  • How much money willing to spendArea to build onWhat the homeowner wants such as appliances, special featuresUse CAD to designPresent to homeownerMake changes based on homeowners decisionsBuild house
  • Design- what is it going to look like. (Shape size)Excavation- Removal or change of landscape to build onMaterials- the qualityLabor- costs for man power to build houseEquipment- extra supplies needed to create house
  • Size-When building a home, it's best to work with even numbers. Have your home size rounded up or down to increments of two feet. This reduces wasted materials. Also, it's most economical to build a home which is no deeper than 32 feet. If the depth exceeds 32 feet, then your roof trusses may need to be specially designed and will be more expensive. Shape- Homes that have a rectangular or box shape cost less to build. Having more angles and corners in the shape of your home can increase the amount of labor and materials needed to build a home. Dome shaped homes also make efficient use of materials and tend to cost less than other shapes. Site-Preparing a site for construction can have a big impact on the cost of a home. Building on a flat lot will usually cost less. If you have to haul in lots of dirt, do a lot of grading, clear trees, or blast through large rocks, then site preparations can become more expensive.Overruns- Usually the finished cost of a home is more then the original bid price. Cost overruns occur from overspending the allowances, making changes, and encountering unforeseen problems. Proper planning can greatly reduce cost overruns. In general, it is a good idea to allow an additional 10% to cover unexpected costs.Market- Usually the cost of building a home increases around 3% to 6% per year. If it will be several years before you begin construction, remember to include inflation into the cost estimate for your home. When using other homes to compare prices, try to use homes that have been built within the last six months.
  • Square-foot method - multiply the sq ft by the current estimating information. This is provided by Federal Housing Administration and varies on where you live. Usually ranges from $10-$20. rough estimateCubic-foot method - slightly more accurate. Multiply the cubic volume by $1.25. rough estimateBuildings material method- accounts for the quality of the materials. Then same size house can vary by thousands just because of the materials qualities
  • 1- all documents, completion date, contractor’s bid2- adherence to plans, fulfillment of laws, purchase of materials, provide written guarantee of work3- method of payment, having fire insurance, paying utilities4- excavation, location of house, grading for water drainage, foundation prep5- foundation, porches, patios, terraces…6- wood grade, nail size7- type size and finish8- type amount color 9- flashing and sizing,10- size material type quantities frames11-type size amount 12- wall coverings13- types makes size model numbers14- outlets switches brackets15- plumbing lines fixtures color style and make16- equipment, fuels outlets exhausts registers17- location type size 18- model make color dimensions19- types size colors20- color and type number of coats
  • 21- type make material color22- finishes instructions for each color 23- list and location of all blacktop areas
  • Exterior Elevations - show the front, rear and sides of the house, including exterior materials, details and measurements.Detailed Floor Plans - show the placement of interior walls and the dimensions for rooms, doors, windows, stairways, etc. of each level of the house.Cross Sections - show details of the house as though it were cut in slices from the roof to the foundation. The cross sections detail the construction of the home, insulation, flooring and roofing.Foundation Plans - include drawings for a full, partial or daylight basement and/or crawlspace.Interior Elevations - show the details of cabinets (kitchen, bathroom and utility room), fireplaces, built-in units and other special interior features.provide the layout of rafters, dormers, gables and other elements including clerestory windows and skylights. Schematic Electrical Layouts - show the suggested locations for switches, fixtures and outletsGeneral Specifications - provide instructions and information of structural specifications, excavating and grading, masonry and concrete work, carpentry and wood specifications, thermal and moisture protection and specifications about drywall, tile, flooring, glazing, caulking and sealants.
  • Complete steps 1 and 2 with 6H pencil.3) Do this by center line and depthComplete steps 4 and 5 with 2H pencil.
  • Footing -distributes weight of house over large areaFoundation walls- to support the load of the building above the groundPiers and columns- used to support floor systemsAnchor bolts- are embedded in the top of foundation wallsSills- provide the base for attaching the exterior walls to foundationPosts- support the weight of girders or beams and transmit the weight to the footings
  • Cripples- raise the floor level without the use of higher foundation wallsGirders- supported by posts and piers and are secured to the foundationJoists- span from girder to girder or girder to foundation wall
  • T- Forms an inverted T. it is most popular in structures with basements or when the bottom of the first floor must be accessible Slab- poured directly into the ground with footers placed where extra support is needed. Requires way less laborPier- fewer materials and labor are needed. Basements are not possible
  • Conventional framing- super close intervals. Many beams and postsPost and beam construction- posts are vertical support while beams are horizontal support. Used in smaller buildings due to the lack of strength of wood. Little amount of posts and beams
  • Cross bracing is neededCan be designed to span long distances without intervening supportBecause of this there is a greater flexibility in the design
  • Water supply- Can run in any convenient direction because of the pressure after leaving main valve. Too many changes in direction causes friction reducing water pressure. Size ranges from ¾ “ to 1”. Placing insulation around hot water lines conserves hot water and makes savings on heating bills
  • Gravity drainage- all pipes slope down towards main disposal so own weight will cause it to flow towards main system and away from house. Need vents for circulation of air. Each fixture much have a seal to prevent back flow.
  • Dry pipes- examples are air ductsWaste lines-examples are sinks and tubsWet lines- examples pipes to appliancesSoil lines- example is toilet
  • Goes to a tank outside of the house. Lighter part of liquids flows to the drainage field. Size of pipes depends on codes in the community
  • Water closets- tank and bowl in one piece, separate, wall-hungShowers- prefabricated, built on the job, placed overBathtubs- recessed, square, free standing, sunkenLavatories- wall-hung, cabinet, built-in counter top, cornerSinks- single, double, sink and drain boardLaundry tubs- single, double, tripleDishwashers- built-in and free-standingHot water heater- electric, gasWashing Machine- top loading, front loading, wringer-type
  • Main source- should be controlled by wall switchElectrical outlets-1 for every 6’ of wall spaceIn kitchen- 1 for every 4’ of wall space(regardless of size)
  • 1- toggle switches are available in different sizes: single and double pole, three and four-way
  • Form- can be either closed and solid or closed and volume-containingSpace- everythingLight and Shadow- areas around windows and doors appear darker since these parts are shadowed. Relationship of light to dark areas should be planned accordinglyTexture-a balance between textures should be aimed at within every buildingLine- makes different objects appear differentColor- if possible the natural color of building materials should be used. If color is used, designer must incorporate a color scheme
  • Unity- sense of wholeness in the design. Should appear for completeRepetition- curved lines, spaces, and texture createRhythm-repeated in regular sequenceVariety- change of rhythm throughout. Too much unity ruins appearanceEmphasis- achieved by color form texture or lineBalance- achievement of equilibrium in the design


  • 1. CAD(Computer Aided Design)
    By: Justin Dunn
  • 2. Thesis
    CAD is a technological advanced program that allows for the easy completion of project designs in a complete and organized fashion.
  • 3. What is CAD?
    It is a computerized program that allows detailed designs to be built using a variety of different methods and models
    used in art, architecture, engineering and manufacturing
  • 4. Advantage of CAD over hand drawn models
    Produced and modified more quickly
    Allows designer to try out different colors and textures
    Easily shared between locations
    Less storage space needed
    Better visualizations
    It allows for more exact measurements of dimensions
  • 5. Types of CAD
    2D- Orthographic projection in which each view only shows two dimensions
    • 2 ½D- Isometric, planometric, oblique and perspective views which show all three dimensions (l, b, h) on a pictorial drawing
    • 6. 3D- a computer generated model is a ‘virtual object’ which can be rotated on screen to be viewed at any angle
  • Types of 3D Models
    Wireframe model- the object is made up using a series of connected lines
    Surface model- the model is built up by drawing surfaces of an object
    Solid model- the model is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cubes
  • 7. Types of Pencils
  • 15. Creating a house
  • 16. Steps to creating a house
    Set budget
    Find land
    Discuss what is to be included
    Come up with multiply designs
    Present different ideas
    Tweak design and make final copy
    Hire crew to build
    Architecture: Drafting and Design
  • 17. Costs for a new home
  • 18. Variations in Cost
    Size of home
    Shape of home
    Site preparation
    Cost overruns
    Inflation and market conditions
  • 19. Estimating Costs
    Square-foot method
    Cubic-foot method
    Buildings material method
    Architecture: Drafting and Design
  • 20. Specifications
    General Info.
    Legal Responsibilities (contractor)
    Legal Responsibilities (homeowner)
    Concrete and Cement work
    Sheet material
    Doors and windows
    11. Lath and plaster
    12. Dry walls
    13. Isulation
    14. Electrical needs
    15. Plumbing
    16. Heating and air conditioning
    17. Stone and brick work
    18. Built-ins
    19. Ceramic tile
    20. Painting
  • 21. Specifications con’t
    21. Finish hardware
    22. Exterior
    23. Miscellaneous
  • 22. Included in Floor Plans
    1.Exterior Elevations
    2. Detailed Floor
    3. Cross Sections
    4. Foundation Plans
    5. Interior Elevations
    6. Roof Plans
    7. Schematic Electrical Layouts
    8. General Specifications
  • 23. Steps for Drawing Floor Plan
    1) Block in overall dimensions and add thickness to outside walls.
    2) Lay out position of interior partitions.
    3) Locate position of doors and windows.
    4) Darken objects.
    5) Add door and window symbols.
    6) Add symbols for stairwells.
  • 24. Foundations
  • 25. Foundation Members
    Footing- Usually concrete
    Foundation walls- concrete, brick, stone, or concrete block
    Piers and Columns- concrete, brick, steel, or wood
    Anchor bolts- spaced approx. 6’ intervals, starting 1’ from each corner
    Sills- are fastened with anchor bolts to foundation wall
    Posts- wood member › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials
  • 26. Foundation Members con’t
    Cripples-often 4x4’s spaced at close intervals
    Girders- major horizontal support members
    Steel Beams- same as girders but can cover larger area
    Joists- placed on girders › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials
  • 27. Foundation Types
    T Foundations- consists of a trench footer upon which is placed a concrete wall
    Slab Foundations- a poured solid slab of concrete
    Pier and Column Foundation- individual footers upon which columns are placed › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials
  • 28. Framing
  • 29. Wood Framing
    Conventional framing- has many posts and beams that are spread at small intervals
    Post and beam construction- increased by popularity of the indoor-outdoor living
    House Framing by John D. Wagner
  • 30. Steel Framing
    Similar to post and beam framing
    Uses columns, beams, and slabs
    Steel Columns provide vertical support
    Steel beams support roof or floors
    Used in extremely high multiple-story buildings
    House Framing by John D. Wagner
  • 31. Construction
  • 32. PA Construction Law
    Pennsylvania's Home Improvement Consumer Protection Act requires that a long list of disclosures appear in the contract – such as start and finish dates, names and addresses of subs, insurance coverage and a phone number for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Consumer Protection. Any contract which omits these disclosures is void and unenforceable. The Act also makes unenforceable any contract that includes one of eleven clauses commonly found in some home improvement contracts. Failure to comply with the Act is an unfair trade practice and gives an owner the right to recover three times actual damages plus attorney fees. Failure to comply is also a misdemeanor if the contract is for $2,000 or less. If for more than $2,000, violation is a third degree felony. Penalties are higher for repeat violations and if the owner is 60 years old or more. Failure to get a change order in writing carries the same civil and criminal penalties.
  • 33. Fines for Illegal Construction Contracts
    The Home Improvement Finance Act requires several disclosures, including disclosure of the right of rescission and a statement in 10-point bold type directly above the signature of the owner. A fine of up to $500 can be imposed for a first violation. Second and later violations earn the same fine plus a year in jail. In addition, the district attorney is authorized to seek an injunction against the contractor. Any violation of that injunction carries a penalty of up to $1,000.
    Failure to make federal truth in lending disclosures requires restitution of the overcharge.
    Failure to include the disclosures required by 12 Code of Federal Regulations § 226.15 extends the right of rescission to three years (rather than three days).
    Omitting insulation disclosures required by 16 Code of Federal Regulation § 460 can result in an $11,000 fine.
  • 34. Plumbing
  • 35. Water supply
    Supplied from a public water supply or private well
    Brought to all plumbing fixtures under pressure
    Required to have shut off valve at property line and foundation
    Hot water obtained by routing cold water through a water heater
    Hot water valve is always on left side as you face fixture › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing
  • 36. Waste Lines
    Discharged by gravity drainage
    Lines are much larger due to lack of pressure
    Vertical lines are called stacks, horizontal are branches
    Fixture traps stop gases released from entering house
    Fixture traps are exposed for easy maintenance
    Waste stacks carry only water waste
    Lines from bathroom are called soil lines › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing
  • 37. Differences
    Dry pipes
    Never have water in them
    Part of venting system
    Waste lines
    Carries water with small waste
    Only contain water when water is being disposed of
    Wet Lines
    Full of water under pressure at all times
    Soil Lines
    Carry water with larger wastes
    Only contain water when water is being disposed of
  • 38. Septic System
    When a city sewer is not available, a private sewer, called a septic system is used
    Converts solid wastes into liquids using bacterial action
    Drainage Field- porous pipes spread over an area to allow distribution of water
    Tank size varies according to occupants of house
  • 39. Plumbing Fixtures
    Bathroom Fixtures
    Water Closets
    Laundry tubs
    Hot water heater
    Washing machine
  • 40. Electrical
  • 41. Planning Rules
    Main source should be controlled by wall switch
    Electrical outlets
    Outlets for kitchens
    Walls between doors should have an outlet
    Each room should have adequate lighting for all visual tasks
  • 42. Switch Location
    Plan what switches are needed
    Show location and height of switches
    Select type of switch, cover, and finish
    Only lamps in room: switch should control outlet
    Lights for stairways- controlled from both ends
    Bedroom lights- controlled by three-way switch at entrance and next to bedside
    Outside lights- controlled with three-way switch from garage and house exit
  • 43. Switch Location con’t
    Basement light- switch and pilot light at top of basement stairs
    Pull string switches used in closets
    Describe all special controls to be used
  • 44. Design Process
  • 45. 6 Basic Elements
    Form- mass and shape
    Space- surrounds form and contained within
    Light and Shadow- reflects from surface of form, and shadows where light doesn’t reach
    Texture- varies with each material
    Line- produce a sense of movement or greater sense of length or height
    Color- either part of material or added using other techniques
  • 46. 6 Basic Principles