TABLE OF CONTENTS• What is Medical Technology• History of Medical Technology • 19th Century • 20th Century• Importance of Medical Technology• Advancements In The Medical Fields • Growing Human Body Parts • Bionic Limbs• How Medical Technology Effects Society • Ethical Issues • Environmental Issues• Conclusion• References
MEDICAL TECHNOLOGYMedical Technology is part of all medical practice and is constantly growing and changing. It is the use of a device or intervention to promote life, relieve pain and suffering, manage disease, and perform operations and surgeries (Tuan, 2012).
("Health technologies timeline," 2012) HISTORY OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY • Disease has been a part of life, since the beginning of time • Medical technology developed in response to the high death rates of the black plague that killed millions (Michael A. De Miranda A. Mark Doggett Jane T. Evans) • In the 19th century medicine began to use mechanical and chemical technology devices to diagnosis and treat illnesses • The Stethoscope, a device to listen to the heart and lungs, was invented in 1816, by René Laennec • The first effective blood transfusion was in 1818 and performed by Dr. James Blundell. • The spirometer, used to measure lung capacity, was invented by John Hutchinson in 1846 • The sphygmomanometer, a blood pressure cuff, was invented by Samuel Siegfried Karl Ritter von Basch in 1881 • X-rays were brought into the medical field in 1896 by John Hall-Edwards in Birmingham, England • Aspirin was first developed by Felix Hoffmann, a chemist for Bayer in 1897 ("Health technologies timeline," 2012)
HISTORY OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY• By the 20th century, medical technology continued to grow at a rapid pace to treat and prevent disease. • School vaccinations became a requirement for children in 1922, with proof of having the small pox vaccine before entry. • Insulin was first used in 1922, to treat diabetes • Vaccine for diphtheria was produced in 1923 • Vaccine for tetanus was produced in 1924 • First electroencephalogram was performed in 1924, to measure the electrical activity of the brain. • Penicillin was first successfully used in 1930 to cure infection • The first successful hemodialysis machine was used in 1945, to preform dialysis on a comatose patient. ("Health technologies timeline," 2012)
HISTORY OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY• Tylenol was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1951• Heart and Lung bypass machines were used in human surgeries in 1953• Ultrasounds were introduced in 1955, to enable the viewing of the fetus• 1958 the first pacemaker was implanted• The first human liver and lung transplants took place in 1963• The first heart transplant was in 1967• Genetic engineered foods was made possible in 1971• The use of medical robots in surgery started in 1985• In 1998 the use of stem cells was discovered by James Thompson ("Health technologies timeline," 2012)
IMPORTANCE OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY• Increases productivity and competence • With the advancement of electronic documentation, medical records are more readily available and accurate; reducing the number of medication errors. • Increases the quality of care • With every improvement in treatment and diagnosis of disease, the better the care. With new medications, and devices to aide in the management of disease, people are able to live longer and more comfortably. • Promotes Independence • With the use of technological devices to help manage and control disease, people are able to monitor their conditions at home. Diabetic glucometers permit the self testing of blood glucose levels on a daily basis. • Faster Recovery • Noninvasive surgeries are lower risk and require less hospitalization. With the help of cameras, surgeons are able to make small incisions that heal faster.• Reduces Hospital Stays • Medical technologies have reduced the amount of time patients need to be hospitalized, freeing up hospital beds and reducing costs.• Higher Economy • With every advancement in healthcare, there are more high quality jobs created and investment opportunities.
ADVANCEMENTS IN THE MEDICAL FIELDSGrowing human body parts Stem cells are being used to grow human body parts and organs Small pieces of tissue are taken from the damaged organ and grown outside the body Organ is not rejected, since the body recognizes it as it’s own Waiting for a organ donor will be a thing of the past Uncomplicated organs like bladders have all ready been grown and used in the last 10 years Scientist are currently working on more complicated organs like the heart and liverhttp://newyork.cbslocal.com/2011/09/28/seen-on-cbs-2-growing-body-parts/ (2012). Retrieved from
Bionic Limbs controlled by the mind• Electrodes placed on the brain and the limb being attached will communicate to allow the patient to move the limb• Patient will have more control over prosthetic limbs• Allows patient to interact with their environment using the prosthetic limb• Patients can lead a more active and involved lifehttp://news.discovery.com/videos/medicine-and-technology/ (2012). Retrieved from www.googleimages.com
ETHICAL ISSUES • High cost means that they are not available to everyone • The rich benefit more from the advancements, since they can afford the high cost, while other people suffer. • Use of animals in medical testing is seen as animal cruelty • Animal activist find animal experiments as cruel and unnecessary • Tampering with nature seems unnatural • Religious groups feel that medical technology gives scientist a “God complex” • Some Medications due more harm then good. Cause other diseases and symptoms when overused or used improperly • Antibacterial resistant bacteria is a result of over vaccinating the population and the use of antibiotics carelessly (2012). Retrieved from www.googleimages.com(2012). Retrieved from www.googleimages.com
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES • Overpopulation of the world • Since people are living longer means less food resources and more pollution.(2012). Retrieved from • Increase pollution from the research facilities conductingwww.googleimages.com experiments. • More waste products produced and energy used damages the earths environment. (2012). Retrieved from www.googleimages.com
CONCLUSION Medical technology has helped the population of the world, to live longer healthier lives. With even greater advancements in technology, we are able to do things that were just science fiction less then ten years ago. Growing body parts and controlling inanimate objects with our minds still seem to be effects out of the movies. Science has advanced to the point, where morality is being stretched to it’s limits and limitations on the body are being coming outdated. With everything in life, medical technology is not perfect and there are many negative aspects involving ethical and moral debates. In my opinion, the positives outweigh the negatives. Medical technology is helping people live their lives to the fullest.(2012). Retrieved fromwww.googleimages.com (2012). Retrieved from www.googleimages.com
REFERENCESA., Doggett, A. M., & Evans, J. T. (2005). Medical technology: contexts and content in science and technology. Retrieved from http://www.mycahs.colostate.edu/Michael.DeMiranda/MedTechPrimer6.0.pdfEucomed medical technology. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.eucomed.org/medical-technology/value-benefitsHealth technologies timeline. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3824Salem, W. (2011, September 28). CBS New York. Retrieved from http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2011/09/28/seen-on- cbs-2-growing-body-parts/The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. (2012). History of vaccines. Retrieved from http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/all University of Utah (2009, July 6). Paralyzed People Using Computers, Amputees Controlling Bionic Limbs, With Microelectrodes On (Not In) Brain. Science Daily. Retrieved December 5, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629081137.htmhttp://news.discovery.com/videos/medicine- and-technology/Tuan, D. (2012). ehow.com. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_4672066_medical-technology.html De Miranda, M.