Teaching and Learning with Simulation and ModellingNowadays, the process of the teaching and learning are more advances be...
the real experiment, it need the time for the animal to multiply and consuming, and it willtake a lot of time to complete ...
INTRODUCTIONPicture 1: The logo and symbol for STELLASTELLA is a free open source software used to conduct an experiment i...
dynamic phenomenon. You and other literally can see what you are thinking. Using a simplealgebraic relationship, you can t...
CONTENTPicture 2: The image of the Predator-prey Dynamic modelThis virtual experiment was created by the STELLA and this i...
students. Hence, will help the teachers to explain about the experiment to the students andmake the students understand ev...
background and context is about the interesting and only party understood density variationare those which are not related...
Picture 4: The core model structure for the simple predator-prey DynamicsPicture 5: the equation of the predator and prey ...
CONDUCTED EXPERIMENTThe data Of The ExperimentPicture 6: The background of the graphThe simulation of the experiment in th...
Picture 7: Step 1. To add the new manipulating variable, right click at the manipulatingvariable and choose „copy‟ selecti...
Picture 9: Step 3. Right click the variable knob and click „open‟,Picture 10: Step 4. After click „open‟, the right table ...
After we chose the manipulated variable that we want to use, we press button „ok‟.Picture 12: The new manipulated variable...
1    2    34    56            Picture 14: The graph and the full manipulated variable.            MANIPULATED VARIABLE    ...
to have a lot of the food is higher. Both of the population of lynx and Hare is depend to   the wide of area and the amoun...
Lynx birth fraction knob function is to adjust the number of the Lynx birth fraction inside thedynamic experiment. The num...
Type of graph selection       The graph       legend that       can be used.                                              ...
Type of Graph           There have three type of graph that we can select. Example is time series graph, scatter graph    ...
The number of graph that was used is five. First graph will show the number of bothpopulation of lynx and hare. Second gra...
Graph 3: The birth number of lynx               Graph 4: The number of hare killed       and hare                         ...
When the number of predator lynx is lowest, the number of the prey hare getting higher as thenumber of the predator is low...
Graph 1: The number of population          Graph 2: the death number of lynx and harelynx and hareGraph 3: The birth numbe...
Therefore their can multiply and breeding more rapidly. After the several time, the   interaction will occurring as in the...
Graph 3: The birth number of lynx                Graph 4: The number of hare killed   and hare                            ...
Experiment 4Picture 19: Graph for experiment 4
Graph 1: the population of lynx and hare              Graph 2: The number of birth lynx andhareGraph 3: The number of the ...
Experiment 5Picture 20: The graph for the experiment when the size of 1 time lynx harvests is increase to360 times.Graph 1...
Graph 3: The number of the lynx and hare death.In this experiment 5, we were adjusting the meter knob of the size of 1 tim...
getting to the limits and cannot serve for a lot of the hare. Therefore the competition amongthe hare becomes higher to ge...
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Stella

  1. 1. Teaching and Learning with Simulation and ModellingNowadays, the process of the teaching and learning are more advances because we can relateand use the new technologies to involve in the teaching and learning process. Simulation isthe imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. This simulationtechnology is the best example to relate the new technologies with the teaching and learningprocess. By combining his technologies with the teaching and learning process, the learningprocess become more interactive, attractive, colourful and nicely and the student can easily tounderstand the lesson because they can see the process of the knowledge. Example is thepredator and prey process, if we just tell them in theory; the student will be confused and takea time to understand. But, by using this simulation technic, the student can see the processand get the result of the process in a short of time. Other, the teaching process also will bemore easy, save of time, the data can be used in many times, more effective and the importantone is the student enjoy to studies. This simulation technics is usually used by the pilottraining, a medical learning process, engineering learning process, military training, andmany else. There have some software that can be used to make the simulation such STELLA.The other technologies that used widely in the teaching and learning process is modellingtechnics. This modelling technics is either used the model in three dimensions, 3-D that wecan touch out or in three dimensions, 3-D virtually in the computer. Others, the modelling area building representation of things in the „real world‟ and allowing ideas to be investigated.This technic also is very interactive, attractive, easily to understand and may be the best wayof the teaching and learning process. When these two technologies were combining together,both simulation and the modelling technologies, it will become the powerful and the best oftechnologies that used in teaching and learning process.The benefit when we used these technologies in the teaching and learning process, the resultgetting more precise of prediction, stimuli the student willing to learning and many else. Forthe some learning process such the predator and prey experiment activities, when we use theconcept of the simulation and the modelling in term of the experiment, we can get the preciseaccurate prediction for long period of time about this interaction of predator and prey and canstimulate the willing of the student to study. Other, it also can save our time, because if we do
  2. 2. the real experiment, it need the time for the animal to multiply and consuming, and it willtake a lot of time to complete the research. But by using the simulation and modellingtechnic, we just adjust the manipulating variable and insert the data and the result of thepredator and prey interaction can be shown and predicted in day only when we comparewhen doing the real research for the several years. But to get the data, the researcher alsoneeds a time to take the data, maybe for a month to collect the data.Besides that, the modelling and the simulation can attract the willing of the student and publicto study and make the research. This is because, this technics is very attractive, cooperative,enjoyable, easy to learn, and we can see the whole process happen in a short time. We alsocan make the prediction based on the result get from this modelling and simulation technics.Other than that, this modelling and simulation technic also represent the real situation in thereal world in to the virtually inside the simulation and the modelling programs. What happenin the simulation and modelling program have a higher probability that it also may be occurson the real world because the data inside the modelling and simulation program is the realdata getting from the real world.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONPicture 1: The logo and symbol for STELLASTELLA is a free open source software used to conduct an experiment in a virtual worldwhich gives the ideal result of the experiment. I got this software in the Iseesystem.comwhich is in trial mode only and can be used for 30 days only, in order to use it much longerand more features you need to purchase it. Once you downloaded the software, it got noexperimental function yet. Visit this site in order to get the experiment program by using theinternet, this software are free for 30 days.http://www.iseesystems.com/community/downloads/EducationDownloads.aspx. I chose the“Predator-prey dynamic” from the physical sciences part. Predator-prey dynamic form the topic of study in virtually any biology ofenvironment Science curriculum. On one hand, the treatment can be highly qualitative andsomewhat simplistic example, predator tends to regulate the prey population and vice versa.On the other hand, the treatment can be highly mathematically, involving the analyticsolution to nonlinear differential equation. Unfortunately, with either extreme, it can bedifficult to build an understanding of the proses and mechanism that govern predator-preyinteractions.By providing a simple yet rigorous language for presenting a dynamic system or process,STELLA enables you to map your assumption about the process that governs a particular
  4. 4. dynamic phenomenon. You and other literally can see what you are thinking. Using a simplealgebraic relationship, you can then add another measure of rigor to the representation of theprocess. Finally the software powerful simulation capabilities created a rich laboratory forconducting controlled experiment. As you learn from the experiment, you can flow back yourknowledge into the model. A virtuous cycle indeed. From my first impression, this software is very versatile and very good to use byscience teacher to be used in the class. This software is implying all the real factors in the realworld and put it into the virtual experiment to make it as real as possible. So, the teachers canexplain to the student virtually without putting the environment factor aside. Besides that, ithas quite long period of trial version which is 30 days.
  5. 5. CONTENTPicture 2: The image of the Predator-prey Dynamic modelThis virtual experiment was created by the STELLA and this is the front page of thesimulation. From the front page, we can be directed to 3 different links, which is, thebackground and the context of the experiment, conducting the experiment and finallyexploring the model. Need to be mentioned here, this simulation has the copyright under theSTELLA.When we were directed to the “background and Context” page, it tells us about theintroduction of the experiment and some of the information regarding to the experiment. Theinformation was about the variables in the experiments. It also ask the readers about thepossibilities and the result outcomes when some of the variables were change. This page isvery useful in order to gives pre-image of the experiment that we‟ll conduct next to the
  6. 6. students. Hence, will help the teachers to explain about the experiment to the students andmake the students understand even more. Other, the Stella also can be used in our daily lifewhen the entire variable that we program at the Stella is happen in the world. So it can be ourguiding to predict what will happen when the variable is change. Predator-prey dynamic form the topic of study in virtually any biology ofenvironment Sciencecurriculum. On one hand, the treatment can be highly qualitative andsomewhat simplistic example, predator tends toregulate the prey population and vice versa.On the other hand, the treatment can be highlymathematically, involving the analytic solutionto nonlinear differential equation. Unfortunately, with either extreme, it can be difficult tobuild an understanding of the proses and mechanism that govern predator-prey interactions.Picture 3: The background and context of the predator-prey model. After learning about habitats, food webs and food chains, students can begin todiscover the relationships between organisms and between organisms and their environment.A key to many of these studies to the investigation of how populations change over time.Populations are always changing. Sometimes changes are the result of humans interferingwith food webs or habitats. But even when humans do not interfere, populations will stillnaturally shift up and down or fluctuate. The purpose of this experiment was inside the
  7. 7. background and context is about the interesting and only party understood density variationare those which are not related to seasonal or obvious annual changes, but which involvedregular oscillations or cycles of abundance with peaks and depression every few years, oftenoccurring with such regularity that the population size may predicted in advance. Among the mammals, the best studied example exhibit either a 9 to 10 years or 3 to 4years periodicity. As an example, we will look closely at the relationship between the Canadalynx and its primary prey, the snowshoe hare as a classic example of a 9 to 10 yearsoscillation. In this experiment, assume that we are the manager of a small but thriving naturalwilderness area. Key species in the wilderness include hare and lynx. Over the past severalyears, the two populations have coexisted in peace, harmony and equilibrium. Life‟s beengood. Now, however, there‟s a proposal on the table from the Baffin‟s Bay Company tohumanely harvest some portion of the lynx population. This is intended to be a one-timeevent. You‟ve been assured that nature will compensate for this action to once again balancethe population. The snowshoe hare is a common species of rabbit found in North America, its rangeextending throughout Canada, Alaska, and into the northern United States. One distinctivequality is its 2 different coloration patterns brown in the summer, and white in the winter tobetter camouflage with the snow. Its diet consists of grasses, berries, twigs, bark andleaves.The Canada lynx is a wild cat that resembles a large house cat with a short tail andprominent tufts on its ears. It is very secretive and even experienced hunters rarely see one inthe wild. Its range overlaps with the snowshoe hare, on which it almost exclusively preysupon
  8. 8. Picture 4: The core model structure for the simple predator-prey DynamicsPicture 5: the equation of the predator and prey dynamics
  9. 9. CONDUCTED EXPERIMENTThe data Of The ExperimentPicture 6: The background of the graphThe simulation of the experiment in this software are set to let the data collected in theexperiment was completely perfected which means there will be no error as if we do theexperiment in the real world situations. But remember, you need to enter the exactly true datato get the exactly predicted data. In this experiment of predator-prey dynamic experimentneed the exactly true data from the real world to help us to collect the data and predict theactivity, the population of the predator, and the population of the prey. This experiment ishigh level because we need the real number of the population of the predator and the prey.However, we also can predict their activity and their population by assuming their number ofpopulation. Based on the picture 4, the variable that we can change is the size of 1 time lynxharvest. But we can also add the manipulating variable by follow the step below:
  10. 10. Picture 7: Step 1. To add the new manipulating variable, right click at the manipulatingvariable and choose „copy‟ selection. After that, right click back and choose „paste‟ selection.Picture 8: Step 2. The news variable knob was added.
  11. 11. Picture 9: Step 3. Right click the variable knob and click „open‟,Picture 10: Step 4. After click „open‟, the right table is and the manipulated variable that wecan use.
  12. 12. After we chose the manipulated variable that we want to use, we press button „ok‟.Picture 12: The new manipulated variable „Hares population‟ was shown. (the knob input device)Picture 13: The knob input device.To add the other manipulating variable or knob, repeat step 1 to step 4 or just click at theknob input device as shown in picture 11.In this experiment, I would choose fivemanipulating variables such, the number of the Hare, the number of Lynx, the fraction ofHare birth, the fraction of Lynx birth and the size of 1time Lynx harvest. The result for thedata is manipulated in duration 60 years of period time. If we have the true exactly data of theHare and Lynx population, activities, and reproductive fraction of both, we can get best datathat we can use to predict the Population of the Hare and Lynx at the area.
  13. 13. 1 2 34 56 Picture 14: The graph and the full manipulated variable. MANIPULATED VARIABLE 1. Area (the habitat wide) 2. Size of 1 time lynx harvests 3. Population of lynx 4. Population of Hare 5. Lynx birth fraction 6. Hare birth fraction 1. Area Area in this experiment meant is the wide of the habitat of the lynx population and the hare population lives. The wide for the area of habitat we can adjust from 1 meter square to infinity, but for this experiment, I only take from 1 meter square to 10000 meter square. The wide of the area of the habitat is taking the important role for the both animal predator and prey to live and multiply. The habitat also can give the animal shelter and food. The bigger the area of habitat, the probability for the animal both predator and prey
  14. 14. to have a lot of the food is higher. Both of the population of lynx and Hare is depend to the wide of area and the amount of the food supply in the habitat that they live. 2. Size of 1 time lynx harvests Size of 1 time lynx harvests meant that in the period of time, how much the interaction between the predators Lynx with the prey Hare happen. 1 time harvests meant a Lynx capture and eat a Hare in the one period time. The time in this experiment is not shown clearly and it just give the period time of the interaction happen start from 1 days to 60 years. When we adjust the knob to the high size of lynx harvests, the higher the number of the interaction between the predator and the prey happen in some period time. If we adjust it to 360 times lynx harvests, that‟s mean 360 Hare has been capture by 360 lynx in 1 period time. So the interaction happens rapidly.3. Population of lynxPopulation of lynx knob function is to adjust the number of the Lynx population inside thedynamic experiment. The number of lynx population that we can adjust is from 0 numbers toinfinity. But to get the true result, we should follow the data that we get from the real datacollected. Therefore, we can estimate and predict with more precision the number of the lynxpopulation for a long period time but it depend on the wide of the habitat, food supply,climate, and many else.4. Population of HarePopulation of Hare knob function is to adjust the number of hare population inside thedynamic experiment. The number of hare population that we can adjust is from 0 numbers toinfinity. But to get the true result, we should follow the data that we get from the real datacollected. Therefore, we can estimate and predict with more precision the number of the harepopulation for a long period time but it depend on the wide of the habitat, food supply,climate, predator and many else.5. Lynx birth fraction
  15. 15. Lynx birth fraction knob function is to adjust the number of the Lynx birth fraction inside thedynamic experiment. The number of Lynx birth fraction that we can adjust is from 0 numbersfraction to infinity. But to get the true result, we should follow the data that we get from thereal data collected. Therefore, we can estimate and predict with more precision the number ofthe lynx population for a long period time but it depend on the wide of the habitat, foodsupply, climate, and many else. 6. Hare birth fraction Hare birth fraction knob function is to adjust the number of hare population inside the dynamic experiment. The number of hare birth fraction population that we can adjust is from 0 numbers to infinity. But to get the true result, we should follow the data that we get from the real data collected. Therefore, we can estimate and predict with more precision the number of the hare population for a long period time but it depend on the wide of the habitat, food supply, climate, predator and many else.GRAPHIn this dynamic experiment, we can shows a different kind of graph. The ways to add the newgraph is shown below.Picture 15: How to add graph Picture 16: How to add graph
  16. 16. Type of graph selection The graph legend that can be used. ‘page’, to add number of the graph.To adjust the period timefor the simulationdynamic experimentconducted Picture 17: The ways to add more graph page. Legend of experiment The legend of this experiment is limited. We just can choose the legend from the table. It already fixed. Therefore this legend will affect the graph that you want to see. All the graph for each legend is not same and it different since in the data is different. Duration The time duration on this experiment can be set up at the „Display‟ option as shown at picture 14. We can setup it follow how long period time that we want to see the interaction of the animal to predict their population until the time that we setup. The time is adjustable. Page The page of graph is also adjustable. We can select the other page for the graph. But this page is limited to the number of legend that we can use in this experiment. When we are finish inside the legend, therefore there is the limit for us to add more graph because all the legend had been used. So the next graph page is not available.
  17. 17. Type of Graph There have three type of graph that we can select. Example is time series graph, scatter graph and bar chart graph. EXPERIMENT CONDUCT In this this experiment, I would like to select three knobs or manipulating data to study this simulation dynamic experiment. The knobs or manipulating data that selected is the knob area (the wide of the habitat), the number of the lynx population, and the number of hare population. I‟mchoosingthese three parameters because I think this already enough to collect the data that we need. The population of the animal is depending on the wide their habitat because that habitat supply food to the animal and the concentration of the animal to the wide of habitat can be shown in term of graph. Therefore we can see the number of the animal that can live at the some wide area or habitat. ‘area’ knob The number of lynx populationThe number ofhare population Picture 18: The knob used in the experiment.
  18. 18. The number of graph that was used is five. First graph will show the number of bothpopulation of lynx and hare. Second graph will show the number of the lynx date and haredeath. Third graph show the number of lynx birth and the hare birth. Fourth graph shows thenumber of hare killed per lynx. To conduct this experiment, my point is on the table 1.Experiment 11.0 The data Area 1000 m2 Number of lynx 100 population Number of hare 300 population Duration 60 years 2.0 Result Red line= Lynx Blue line= Hare Graph 1: The number of population Graph 2: the death number of lynx and hare lynx and hare
  19. 19. Graph 3: The birth number of lynx Graph 4: The number of hare killed and hare per lynxDiscussionIn this experiment, we were assuming that the wide area for the animal habitat is 1000 m2, thenumber of lynx population is 100, and the population of hare is 300. Roughly, based on thegraph 1, 2, and 3, when the number of lynx is higher, the number of the hare is lower. At thefirst to third years, the population of both animal predator lynx and prey hare is in the normalstate. After several years, the population of lynx increase rapidly and achieve at the maximumpoint at the top. After several years, it starts to decrease. The assumptions that can be do forthis situation is limited food supply. When there have a lot or maximum number of the lynxpopulation, it has the problem in competition to get the food from their prey because as itpopulation become bigger the food or prey needed also must be higher. As the lynxpopulation is bigger therefore the hare killed per lynx also is bigger and can caused thenumber of hare population decrease to the lowest based on graph 4.When this situation happen, in the several period of time, the lynx will die because there havenot enough food to eat as the number of prey is very little and hard to find them. When therehave a lot of lynx death, there have a change for the hare to breeding and multiply becausethe number of lynx as predator already reduce because a lot of them death because of starvingand not have enough food. Therefore, after several time, the population of the hare is increaseas the number of lynx reducing because the predator have a little number in population.Besides, as the food of the hare is bigger because at the time that their population at lowest,their food getting bigger and higher in quantity because just a little portion of hare that stillsurvive that eat them. So, when the number of the hare increases, there have no problem toget a food. While the number of lynx is still decrease maybe caused of the disease as a lot ofthem die.
  20. 20. When the number of predator lynx is lowest, the number of the prey hare getting higher as thenumber of the predator is lower. At the time that the prey hare increase in the number of thepopulation into the maximum point, its mean that the food supply for the prey hare alsogetting to the limits and cannot serve for a lot of the hare. Therefore the competition amongthe hare becomes higher to get the food. As the result, many of hare will die because ofstarving and have not enough food. As there have a lot of hare die, it also may contribute thevirus and the sick to the other that caused the number of hare die increasing rapidly. As thehare population decreasing, the number of the lynx is increasing maybe because there have alot and enough food to eat as the number of the prey hare is still in a large in size.Conclusion, this situation is have a cycle, average 4 cycle in 60 years. That means the numberof both lynx and hare population at the maximum and minimum number of population is 4times in 60 years. What happen in the lynx population also will be also happen in the harepopulation. The increase and decrease number of the predator and prey is because there aremuch related to each other in term of food chain.Experiment 21.0 Data Area 1000 m2 Number of lynx 150 population Number of hare 150 population Duration 60 years2.0 Result Red line= Lynx Blue line= Hare
  21. 21. Graph 1: The number of population Graph 2: the death number of lynx and harelynx and hareGraph 3: The birth number of lynx Graph 4: The number of hare killedand hare per lynx3.0 DiscussionExperiment 2, in this experiment, we were assuming that the wide area for the animalhabitat is 1000 m2 same as the wide in area of habitat as in experiment 1, the number oflynx population is increase to 150, and the population of hare is decreased to 150. Theresult is getting closed to the experiment 1, but the difference is just the amount of thepopulation of the lynx and the hare. The assumption on this experiment is also getting thesame as in the experiment 1.In this experiment, we use the data that the number of the lynx and the hare population isthe same, 150. In my opinion, at the first years, the animal is interacting with the balance,because the number of the predator is the same with the number of the prey. Other theirnumber also is not to bigger with compared to the wide area of their habitat, therefore theprey of hare has enough food in the habitat because there have just a little competition.
  22. 22. Therefore their can multiply and breeding more rapidly. After the several time, the interaction will occurring as in the experiment 1 to achieve the relationship of predator and the prey. And complete the food chain interaction. Conclusion, this situation is have a cycle, average 4 cycle in 60 years. That means the number of both lynx and hare population at the maximum and minimum number of population is 4 times in 60 years. What happen in the lynx population also will be also happen in the hare population. The increase and decrease number of the predator and prey is because there are much related to each other in term of food chain. Experiment 3 1.0 Data Area 1000 m2 Number of lynx 300 population Number of hare 150 population Duration 60 ears2.0 Result Red line= Lynx Blue line= Hare Graph 1: The number of population Graph 2: the death number of lynx and hare lynx and hare
  23. 23. Graph 3: The birth number of lynx Graph 4: The number of hare killed and hare per lynx3.0 DiscussionExperiment 3, in this experiment, we were assuming that the wide area for the animal habitatis 1000 m2 same as the wide in area of habitat as in experiment 1, the number of lynxpopulation is increase to 300, and the population of hare is decreased to 150. The result isgetting closed to the experiment 1, but the difference is just the amount of the population ofthe lynx and the hare. The assumption on this experiment is also getting the same as in theexperiment 1.In my opinion, at the first years, the animal is interacting with the balance, because thenumber of the predator is the same with the number of the prey. Other their number also isnot to bigger with compared to the wide area of their habitat, therefore the prey of hare hasenough food in the habitat because there have just a little competition. Therefore their canmultiply and breeding more rapidly. After the several time, the interaction will occurring asin the experiment 1 to achieve the relationship of predator and the prey. And complete thefood chain interaction.Conclusion, this situation is have a cycle, average 4 cycle in 60 years. That means the numberof both lynx and hare population at the maximum and minimum number of population is 4times in 60 years. What happen in the lynx population also will be also happen in the harepopulation. The increase and decrease number of the predator and prey is because there aremuch related to each other in term of food chain.
  24. 24. Experiment 4Picture 19: Graph for experiment 4
  25. 25. Graph 1: the population of lynx and hare Graph 2: The number of birth lynx andhareGraph 3: The number of the lynx and hare death.For this experiment, we just used 1 type of knob only, that‟s mean there have the only onemanipulating variable used. The knob used is the size of 1 time lynx harvests. In thisexperiment, the number of the lynx harvests fore hare is 0 such the size of 1 time lynxharvests is set at 0. Thus the student will predict what a type of the graph is produce whenthere have no interaction of the lynx and hare happen. In graph 1, it will show you thenumber of the lynx and hare population. Since we were set the knob of size of 1 time lynxharvest is 0, therefore there no interaction between the predator and prey. So the number ofboth populations is remaining the same.The graph 2 shows the number of lynx and hare birth. Since there have no interactionbetween the predator and prey, therefore the number of birth for both animal is in balance andremaining the same. Graph 3 shows the number of lynx and hare death. Since there have nointeraction, therefore the number of death of both is balance, normal and not caused by eachother.
  26. 26. Experiment 5Picture 20: The graph for the experiment when the size of 1 time lynx harvests is increase to360 times.Graph 1: the population of lynx and hare Graph 2: The number of birth lynx andhare
  27. 27. Graph 3: The number of the lynx and hare death.In this experiment 5, we were adjusting the meter knob of the size of 1 time lynx harvest tothe 360. The student will make a prediction what is the type of the graph will form when theknob is change. When the knob is adjusted to the 360 time, its mean that the one time, the360 of lynx had success to harvests 360 of hares. Therefore the interaction between thepredator and prey has occurred rapidly. As there have the interaction on the predator andprey, so the number of the birth and the death also will change.The number of the lynx is changing over the several years depends on the population of thehares. As the number of the predator is increase, the number of prey kill be decrease and viceversa. In favourable condition, when there is sufficient resource, an increase in the preypopulation is closely followed by an increase in the predator population. The assumptionsthat can be do for this situation is limited food supply. When there have a lot or maximumnumber of the lynx population, it has the problem in competition to get the food from theirprey because as it population become bigger the food or prey needed also must be higher. Asthe lynx population is bigger therefore the hare killed per lynx also is bigger and can causedthe number of hare population decrease to the .When this situation happen, in the several period of time, the lynx will die because there havenot enough food to eat as the number of prey is very little and hard to find them. When therehave a lot of lynx death, there have a change for the hare to breeding and multiply becausethe number of lynx as predator already reduce because a lot of them death because of starvingand not have enough food. Therefore, after several time, the population of the hare is increaseas the number of lynx reducing because the predator have a little number in population.Besides, as the food of the hare is bigger because at the time that their population at lowest,their food getting bigger and higher in quantity because just a little portion of hare that stillsurvive that eat them. So, when the number of the hare increases, there have no problem toget a food. While the number of lynx is still decrease maybe caused of the disease as a lot ofthem die.When the number of predator lynx is lowest, the number of the prey hare getting higher as thenumber of the predator is lower. At the time that the prey hare increase in the number of thepopulation into the maximum point, its mean that the food supply for the prey hare also
  28. 28. getting to the limits and cannot serve for a lot of the hare. Therefore the competition amongthe hare becomes higher to get the food. As the result, many of hare will die because ofstarving and have not enough food. As there have a lot of hare die, it also may contribute thevirus and the sick to the other that caused the number of hare die increasing rapidly. As thehare population decreasing, the number of the lynx is increasing maybe because there have alot and enough food to eat as the number of the prey hare is still in a large in size.Conclusion, this situation is have a cycle, average 4 cycle in 60 years. That means the numberof both lynx and hare population at the maximum and minimum number of population is 4times in 60 years. What happen in the lynx population also will be also happen in the harepopulation. The increase and decrease number of the predator and prey is because there aremuch related to each other in term of food chain.CONCLUSIONAs the conclusion modelling and the simulation can attract the willing of the student andpublic to study and make the research. This is because, this technics is very attractive,cooperative, enjoyable, easy to learn, and we can see the whole process happen in a shorttime. We also can make the prediction based on the result get from this modelling andsimulation technics. Other than that, this modelling and simulation technic also represent thereal situation in the real world in to the virtually inside the simulation and the modellingprograms. What happen in the simulation and modelling program have a higher probabilitythat it also may be occurs on the real world because the data inside the modelling andsimulation program is the real data getting from the real world.REFFERENCE 1. Teaching And Learning With Simulation. REetrieved November 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.ioe.ac.uk/study/MMACLD _02.html 2. „Predator-Prey Dynamics‟Retrieved November 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.iseesystems.com/community/downloads/EducationDownloads.aspx 3. Predation. Retrieved November 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.globalchange.umic.edu/globalchange current/.html

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