Data logging (1)
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    Data logging (1) Data logging (1) Document Transcript

    • WHAT IS DATA LOGGER ? A data logger is a basic box capable of picking up and storing signals from sensors. Forease of use they generally have a minimum number of displays and controls and their portabilityenables remote data logging for example logging data away from the computer. Data loggers areeither fitted with an internal battery that is rechargeable or use regular alkaline batteries. Somemay also have external power supplies. Most data loggers store data in non-volatile memory,which means the data will not be lost if the power supply fails. It is important to note that lowbattery charge may cause some data loggers to behave erratically. A cable or docking station isnormally provided to facilitate a connection to a computer or other hardware. Data loggers canalso make use of Bluetooth or Infra red communication to transfer data. A sensor is a device that senses surrounding data which is then recorded by a data logger.Generally, four or more sensors are capable of being connected to a data logger, depending onthe model. There are over 40 different sensors available, including light, temperature, pressure,conductivity, motion, humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, voltage, altitude, dew point, windspeed, and wind chill.
    • ENGAGING Plants make sugar, storing the energy of the sun into chemical energy, by the process ofphotosynthesis. When they require energy, they can tap the stored energy in sugar by a processcalled cellular respiration. Photosynthesis is the process whereby the radiant energy of the sun isconverted into chemical potential energy of organic molecules. This process is responsible forpresent life on this planet ‐ it provides food, and therefore the energy source for nearly allliving things. The utilization of light energy as an energy source is found only in certainphotosynthetic organisms; a few bacteria, some protists, and, of course, plants. Plants, in additionto their formation of high‐energy foodstuffs from light energy, water, and carbon dioxide, alsoproduce oxygen, a gas essential for our life. The process of photosynthesis involves the use oflight energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar, oxygen, and other organiccompounds. This process is often summarized by the following reaction: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2Cellular respiration refers to the process of converting the chemical energy of organic moleculesinto a form immediately usable by organisms. Glucose may be oxidized completely if sufficientoxygen is available by the following equation: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energyAll organisms, including plants and animals, oxidize glucose for energy. Often, this energy isused to convert ADP and phosphate into ATP. For this experiment, were going to detect what is the gas produced/consumed by theplant as the result of photosynthesis and what is the amount of gas produced/consumed duringthat time using the gas sensor. Two types of gas sensor, that is oxygen gas sensor and carbondioxide gas sensor will be used. The oxygen oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors will be used to measure any change inthe concentration of those gases in the presence of a plant specimen. The sensors are connectedto a hub called Lab Quest Mini that connects to a computer and allows you to see and record inreal time the measurement of oxygen in the chamber. This apparatus is sensitive and expensive,so please use caution when experimenting. The software you will use with this set up is calledLab Pro/CBL 2 and it will record data and create a graph while you experiment.
    • The oxygen sensor continually measures the oxygen concentration using a lead anode, agold cathode, and an electrolytic solution which carries a current produced in proportion to theoxygen concentration, by the reduction of the oxygen molecules. The oxygen sensor must bekept upright or it will not work properly and could be damaged. It is the vertical sensor seen inthe photo of your apparatus. The carbon dioxide sensor is the horizontal sensor and uses infra‐red emission tomeasure the gas concentration in the tube between one end of the sensor tube where the beam isgenerated and the other end where it is measured. The amount of infra‐red reaching the sensorat the end of the tube is inversely proportional to the concentration of carbon dioxide because itis absorbed by carbon dioxide.PROBLEM STATEMENT 1) What gas will be released and consumed for photosynthesis? 2) What is the type of gas sensor that need to be used for this photosynthesis gas experiment? 3) How to set up and connect the gas sensor to the computer correctly for this experiment? 4) What is the correct way/procedure to use the sensor in order to measure the amount of gas that is released and consumed by a plant during photosynthesis more accurately. 5) What is the precaution step that need to be taken while using the sensor? 6) What is the correct and precise method to take the reading from the sensor? 7) How to calculate the rate of respiration/photosynthesis from the graph displayed on the monitor? 8) How the application of the gas sensor help you to obtain result that is more accurate? 9) Can the use of the gas sensor help to reduce the difficulty of the experiment? 10) Is the use of the sensor burden students and make things complicated?
    • EMPOWERINGObjectives:In this experiment, you will 1. Use an O2 Gas Sensor to measure the amount of oxygen gas consumed or produced by a plant during respiration and photosynthesis. 2. Use a CO2 Gas Sensor to measure the amount of carbon dioxide consumed or produced by a plant during respiration and photosynthesis. 3. Determine the rate of respiration and photosynthesis of a plant.
    • Materials: 1. LabPro or CBL 2 interface 2. TI Graphing Calculator 3. DataMate program 4. Vernier O2 Gas Sensor 5. Vernier CO2 Gas Sensor 6. CO2 – O2 Tee 7. 250 mL respiration chamber 8. Plant leaves 9. 500 mL tissue culture flask 10. Lamp 11. Aluminium foil 12. ForcepsProcedures: 1. Plug the O2 Gas Sensor into Channel 1 and the CO2 Gas Sensor into Channel 2 of the LabPro or CBL 2 interface. Use the link cable to connect the TI Graphing Calculator to the interface. Firmly press in the cable ends. 2. Turn on the calculator and start the DATAMATE program. Press CLEAR to reset the program. 3. Set up the calculator and interface for an O2 Gas Sensor and CO2 Gas Sensor. a) Select SETUP from the main screen. b) If the calculator displays an O2 Gas Sensor in CH 1 and a CO2 Gas Sensor in CH2, proceed directly to Step 4. If it does not, continue with this step to set up your sensors manually. c) Press ENTER to select CH 1. d) Select OXYGEN GAS from the SELECT SENSOR menu. e) Select parts per thousand (PPT) as the unit. f) Press once, and then press ENTER to select CH2.
    • g) Select CO2 GAS from the SELECT SENSOR menu. h) Select parts per thousand (PPT) as the unit.4. Set up the data-collection mode. a) To select MODE, press (the up arrow key) twice and press ENTER. b) Select TIME GRAPH from the SELECT MODE menu. c) Select CHANGE TIME SETTINGS from the TIME GRAPH SETTINGS menu. d) Enter “15” as the time between samples in seconds. e) Enter “40” as the number of samples (data will be collected for 10 minutes). f) Select OK twice to return to the main screen.5. Obtain several leaves from the resource table and blot them dry, if damp, between two pieces of paper towel.6. Place the leaves into the respiration chamber, using forceps if necessary. Wrap the respiration chamber in aluminum foil so that no light reaches the leaves.7. Insert the CO2–O2 Tee into the neck of the respiration chamber. Place the O2 Gas Sensor into the CO2–O2 Tee as shown in Figure 1. Insert the sensor snugly into the Tee. The O2 Gas Sensor should remain vertical throughout the experiment. Place the CO2 Gas Sensor into the Tee directly across from the respiration chamber as shown in Figure 1. Gently twist the stopper on the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor into the chamber opening. Does not twist the shaft of the CO2 Gas Sensor or you may damage it.8. Wait two minutes, and then select START to begin data collection. Data will be collected for 10 minutes.9. When data collection has finished, remove the aluminum foil from around the respiration chamber.10. Fill the tissue culture flask with water and place it between the lamp and the respiration chamber. The flask will act as a heat shield to protect the plant leaves.11. Turn the lamp on. Place the lamp as close to the leaves as reasonable. Do not let the lamp touch the tissue culture flask.12. Press ENTER to view the graph of O2 GAS VS. TIME. Sketch a copy of your graph in the Graph section below. When finished, press ENTER to return to the graph menu. Press once, and then press ENTER to view the graph of CO2 GAS VS. TIME. Sketch a copy of
    • your graph in the Graph section below. When finished, press ENTER to return to the graph menu. Select MAIN SCREEN from the graph menu.13. Perform a linear regression to calculate the rate of respiration/photosynthesis. a) Select ANALYZE from the main screen. b) Select CURVE FIT from the ANALYZE OPTIONS menu. c) Select LINEAR (CH 1 VS TIME) from the CURVE FIT menu. d) The linear-regression statistics for these two lists are displayed for the equation in the form: Y=A∗X+B e) Enter the value of the slope, A, as the rate of respiration/photosynthesis in Table 1. f) Press ENTER to view a graph of the data and the regression line. g) Press ENTER to return to the ANALYZE menu. h) Repeat Steps 13b – 13g to calculate the respiration/photosynthesis rate using the data from the CO2 Gas Sensor (CH 2 VS TIME). i) Select RETURN TO MAIN SCREEN from the ANALYZE menu.14. Repeat Steps 8 – 13 to collect data with the plant exposed to light.15. Remove the plant leaves from the respiration chamber, using forceps if necessary. Clean and dry the respiration chamber.
    • Result: O2 rate of CO2 rate ofLeaves production/consumption production/consumption (ppt/s) (ppt/s)In the dark -0.0023 0.00065In the light 0.0045 -0.00126Graphs:
    • Discussions: 1. Were either of the rate values for CO2 a positive number? If so, what is the biological significance of this? The CO2 rate value for leaves in the dark was a positive number. The biological significance of this is that CO2 is produced during respiration. This causes the concentration of CO2 to increase, as sugar is oxidized and broken into CO2, water and energy. 2. Were either of the rate values for O2 a negative number? If so, what is the biological significance of this? The O2 rate value for leaves in the dark was a negative number. The biological significance of this is that O2 is consumed during cellular respiration. This causes the concentration of O2 to decrease as glucose is oxidized for energy. 3. Do you have evidence that cellular respiration occurred in leaves? Explain. Yes, cellular respiration occurred in leaves since O2 decreased when leaves were in the dark and photosynthesis was not possible. 4. Do you have evidence that photosynthesis occurred in leaves? Explain. Yes, photosynthesis occurred in leaves since O2 increased when leaves were exposed to the light. 5. List five factors that might influence the rate of oxygen production or consumption in leaves. Explain how you think each will affect the rate? a) A greater number of leaves should increase the rate since there are more chloroplasts to undergo photosynthesis and more cells to require energy through cellular respiration. b) A greater light intensity will increase the rate of photosynthesis. It may not affect the rate of cellular respiration. c) A cooler room may decrease both rates, as cellular metabolism decreases in cooler weather.
    • d) Facing the top of the leaves toward the light should increase the rate of photosynthesis, since the chloroplasts are closer to the light source.e) If the plants overheat due to the heat from the lamp, they may wilt and stop functioning. This will decrease all rates.f) If there too many leaves, diffusion may be restricted and prevent accurate readings. This may apparently decrease both rates.
    • ENHANCING Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. At standardtemperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colourless,odourless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This substance is an important part of theatmosphere, and is necessary to sustain most terrestrial life. Without oxygen gas, human andanimals cannot life in this planet. Besides, the oxygen gas also is important in producing someother material from combining with other element or material, for industrial, for combustion,medical, for research, for astronaut at outer space, diving and many else. The uses of the oxygengas is divided into two group, first is directly use such to produce the new substance thatcombine with the oxygen gas and use in daily life to breath and second indirectly use such westore the oxygen gas and use it when we need it for other purpose. Firstly are the direct uses, human, animals and other organism need oxygen gas for therespiration process to life. Without oxygen gas, human, animals and other microorganism alsowill die. Other, the oxygen is needed to combine with another elements to be other compoundsuch water, (H2O) the combination of two molecule Hydrogen and 1 molecule of oxygen. Thecombustion also needs an oxygen gas to occur. The example of the combustion equation is CH4+2O2 = CO2 +2H2O. Without Oxygen gas, the combustion process will not happen. Theapplication of this combustion is such in the engine, the combustion in engine will move thepiston and make the machine such car, bus, ship, aeroplane and other machine to move. Secondly are the indirect uses. These mean that the Oxygen gas was stored at somecylindrical bottle or on a tank for other purpose. The application of the oxygen gas that stored inthe cylindrical bottle or in tank is used for diving, welding, cutting of metal, used at the outerspace, in aircraft, in medical, and many else. The highly technology was used such the gascompressors, oxygen sensor, the oxygen concentrator, the compressors oxygen cylinder andmany else was used to store the oxygen gas. This cylindrical oxygen gas is used only when itneeded. In diving activities, the divers will use the oxygen gas cylinder to support them withoxygen when inside the deep sea.
    • For welding, the oxygen gas was needed to support and give an enough amount ofoxygen gas to do the combustion process in high temperature to melt the metal used. At the outerspace, there is vacuum and have no oxygen gas, therefore there need to take the oxygen gas fromEarth to the outer space by store it in the oxygen tank, the oxygen sensor also is very importantin the outer space to detect the oxygen concentration there to help the astronauts to prevent thelacking of the oxygen gas. Other, in the aircraft, the oxygen gas tank and the oxygen sensor isimportant in emergency and to detect the concentration of oxygen gas inside the aircraft. Whenthe aircraft is fly too high, the concentration of nitrogen gas is higher the oxygen gas, therefore itwill caused the passengers difficult to breath, so the pilot need to supply them with the oxygengas to help them to breathe through the funnel oxygen gas. Besides that, the major uses of the cylinder bottle or tank oxygen gas in medicalapplication. When the people are sick, their ability to breath is limited, therefore we need to helpthem to supply the oxygen gas to them by using the specific mask. Oxygen masks areadministered medically for patients in the hospital or at an outside emergency scene, where EMTpersonnel are summoned, or in the emergency room. Oxygen masks are also used in oxygentherapy. They are used for those suffering from pulmonary conditions or disease. The other formof oxygen element in medical is liquid oxygen which is stored in cryogenic (cold) storagecontainers. Liquid oxygen is used to produce vitamin supplements. Oxygen travels with thesupplement to the digestive tract to detoxify the body. Sometimes liquid oxygen comes in theform of a spray. This form helps heal minor cuts, wounds or abrasions. Therefore, the Oxygen gas is very important in our daily life not just for breathe, but canbe used to make our work easily. Besides, the oxygen gas also important in producing someother material from combining with the other element or material, for industrial, for combustion,medical, for research, for astronaut at outer space, diving and many else. The uses of the oxygengas is divided into two group, first is directly use such to produce the new substance thatcombine with the oxygen gas and use in daily life to breath and second indirectly use such westore the oxygen gas and use it when we need it for other purpose.
    • Picture 1: Mini Oxygen gas cylinder for medic Picture 2: Common oxygen gas cylinder Picture 3: Oxygen gas cylinder for diving Picture 4: Oxygen gas tank for astronaut
    • Picture 5: Oxygen gas cylinder for welding Picture 6: The Oxygen tunnel inside the aircraft
    • REFERENCESInternet: 1. Types of Oxygen Cylinders. Retrieved December 2nd, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5954302_types-oxygen-cylinders.html#ixzz2DsX6Y4YI 2. Oxygen Vs. Medical Oxygen. Retrieved December 2nd, 2012, from http://www.ehow.com/about_5627973_oxygen-vs_-medical- oxygen.html#ixzz2DsWaWxbP 3. Photosynthesis and Respiration. Retrieved December 2nd, from http://education.ti.com/xchange/US/Science/Biology/3797/Vernier Act25_photosynthesis.pdfBook: 1. Starr Cecei, Chiristine A. E and Starr Lisa (2011). Biology Concept and Application(8th Ed).USA: BROOKS/COLE Gangage Learning. 2. Brown, T. L. LeMay, H. E. , Bursten, B. E. , and Murphy, C. J. (2009). ChemistryThe Central Science. (11th ed.). London: Prentice Hall.