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Social and emotional development early chilhood final

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  • 1. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Early Childhood Social Understandings -The young child's world of play -Preschool Friendship -Understanding Self -Gender Role -application; Socializing Children into Gender Equality
  • 2. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Early Childhood Emotional Development -Culture and Emotion -Emotional Understanding in Early Childhood -Common Emotions: Fear and Anger -application: Helping young children deal effectively with anger.
  • 3. What do we mean by - social and emotional development of early childhood? Social development - This involves learning the values, knowledge and skills that enable children to relate to others effectively and to contribute in positive ways to family, school and the community. Emotional development - is the process of learning how to understand and control emotions. Early Childhood – is the development period extending from end of infancy to about 5 to 6 year, this period is sometimes called the “preschool year”.
  • 4. Expansion – describe young children broadening sense of who they are as they enter middle childhood.
  • 5. children development is influenced by wider networks of social support...
  • 6. SOCIAL UNDERSTANDINGS  -=The Young Child’s World Play=- In play, children expand their understanding of themselves and others, their knowledge of the physical world, and their ability to communicate with peers and adults.
  • 7. PLAYING... -not only reflects children culture, but provides them opportunities to learn about their culture. -facilitates the development of competence and autonomy and helps children achieve a balance between independence and dependence. - stimulates creativity and cognitive growth. - facilitates language development; during play, children are stimulate to use language to ask question, talk about their experiences, solve problems, tell stories, and direct activities.
  • 8. Social Levels of Play Milred Parten - described development of social play into six categories: unoccupied behavior, onlooker behavior, solitary play, parallel play, associative play, and cooperative play...
  • 9. Unoccupied Behavior. The child is not playing but occupies herself with watching anything that happens to be of momentary interest.
  • 10. Onlooker Behavior. The child spends most of time watching the other children play. Often talks to the children being observed, asks questions or give suggestions, but does not overtly enter into the play. This type differs from unoccupied in that the onlooker is definitely observing particular groups of children rather than anything that happens to be exciting. The child stands or sits within speaking distance from other children.
  • 11. Solitary Play. The child plays alone and independently with toys that are different from those used by the children within speaking distance and makes no effort to get close to other children. He pursues his own activity without reference to what others are doing.
  • 12. Parallel Play. The child plays independently, but the activity chosen naturally brings among other children. Plays with toys that are like those the children around are using but plays with the toys as sees fit, and does not try to influence or modify the activity of the children near.
  • 13. Associative Play. The child plays with other children. The communication concerns the common activity; there is borrowing and loaning of play materials; following one another with trains or wagons; mild attempts to control which children may or may not play in the group. All the members engage in similar activity, there is no division of labor, and no organization of the activity around materials, goal, or product. The children do not subordinate their individual interests to that of the group.
  • 14. Cooperative Play. The child plays in a group that is organized for the purpose of making some material product, striving to attain some competitive goal, dramatizing situations of adult and group life, or playing formal games.
  • 15. Nonsocial activity the simplest form of play, which is reflected in onlooker, unoccupied, and solitary play. Parallel play – playing near other children with similar toys but not trying to interact with them. Associative play – a form of play when children engage in true social participation; they interact by exchanging toys and commenting in each other activities. Cooperative play – a more sophisticated type of play, in which children work toward a common goal with the same product.
  • 16. Cognitive Levels of Play (Piaget) Functional or Sensorimotor play infants, which often involves using their own bodies in play. Pre-operational Play between ages 2 to 6, children often engage in constructive play, which involves manipulating objects to build something such as constructing a tower block. Pretend play pretend play begins as soon as a child can symbolized or mentally represent object. Girls are tend to engage in more pretend play than the boys, and boys tended to engage in more exploratory play than girls. Formal or General play children playing games with rules.
  • 17. -=PRESCHOOL FRIENDSHIPS=- Friendships are an important part of childhood and they typically progress through phases. And through the media of play, children expand their social relationship with others. The quality of their peer relationships is a major indicator of their social and emotional development, mental health and general adaptation.
  • 18. Peers and Attachment Relationship peer relationship appear clearly linked with children early relationship history with their caregivers. Children with history of secure attachment tend to become friends with one another and they relate better to teachers. In contrast, children with insecure attachment history adapt much more poorly. Children who displayed the insecure/ambivalent pattern in infancy tend to be described as dependent. Children who display avoidant attachment patterns in infancy tend to be described as aggressive, non compliant, and inattentive to their teachers.
  • 19. Children Understanding of Friendships As early as age 2, children begin to develop preferences for particular peers and seek them out as play partners.
  • 20. Behaviors Associated with Peer Acceptance  Sympathetic toward peers' distress  Confident of his or her own ability  Other children seek his or her company  Peer leader  Expressive of positive emotions  Communicate message clearly  Helpful to peers  Suggest activities  Does not hit peers  Is considerate and thoughtful of other children  Shows concern for moral issues  Uses and responds to reason  Tends to give lend and share  Is resourceful in initiating activities  Can recoup or recover after stressful experience  Is verbally fluent, can express ideas
  • 21. Robert Selman (1980) studied children friendships. Children development of social ideas depends on systematic development shifts in their role-taking skills...and list five stages; LEVEL Age (years approxim ate) Description Example Level 0 Undifferentiated perspective taking 3-6 Children recognized that “self” and “other” can have different thoughts and feelings, but they frequently confused the two. The children predict that Holly (herself) will save the kitten because she does not want it to be get hurt and believes that Holly's father will feel just as she does about her climbing the tress. “Happy, he likes kitten.”
  • 22. Selman's stage of perspective taking LEVEL Age (years approxi mate) Description Example Level 1 Social - information 4-9 Children understand that people may have different perspective because they have access to information When asked how “Holly's father” will react when he finds out she climbed the tree, the children responds, “if he didn't know about the kitten, he would be angry. But if “Holly” shows him the kitten, he might change his mind. Level 2 Self - reflective 7-12 Children can “step into other person's shoes” and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from other persons perspective. They also recognized other can do the same. When asked whether Holly thinks she will be punished, the child say's, “No, Holly father will understand why she climbed the tree”. This response assumes that Holly's point of view is influenced by her father's being able to “step into her shoes” and understand why she save the kitten.
  • 23. Selman's stage of perspective taking LEVEL Age (years approxi mate) Description Example Level 3 Third-party perspective taking 10-15 Children can step outside a two-person situation and imagine the self and others are viewed by third, impartial party. When asked whether Holly should be punished, the child say, “No, because Holly thought it was important to save the kitten”. But she also knows that her father told her not to climb the tree. So she think she should not be punished only if she can get her father to understand why she had to climb the tree. This response steps outside the immediate situation to view both Holly's and her father's perspectives simultaneously
  • 24. Selman's stage of perspective taking LEVEL Age (years approxi mate) Description Example Level 4 Societal perspective taking 14-adult Individuals understand that the third-party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more value systems of larger societal values When asked if Holly should be punished, the individual responds, “No, the value of the humane treatment of animals justifies Holly's action. Her father's appreciation of this value will lead him not to punished her.
  • 25. Imaginary Friends Having imaginary playmates is a sign of children developing imagination as well as their privacy needs.
  • 26. -=Understanding Self...=- Self Concept: children description of themselves, without passing personal judgment or making comparisons with others.
  • 27. Self-Esteem: children value of themselves, initially reflects the responses and appraisals of other...
  • 28. Two components of self-esteem; - the love and worthy components...
  • 29. - components of self-esteem; - the competence component...
  • 30. -=The Gender Role=- Theories of Gender Role development... Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud -We are all have strong sexual and aggressive urges of desire. We strive to satisfy this urges, but also control them to fit in the society expectation and norms. 5 stages of development; -oral stage -anal stage -phallic stage -latency stage -genital stage
  • 31. Theories of Gender Role development Social Learning Theories: Albert Bandura -Children learn gender roles by observing / identification and imitating others of the same sex. -correct labeling of self and others as males and females
  • 32. Theories of Gender Role development Cognitive Theory : Lawrence Kohlberg -children do not have a mature notion of gender until advent of concrete operational thinking, beginning at the age of 7. Sequential understanding of gender -1.5 to 2 years of age – IDENTITY -3 to 4 years of age – STABILITY -6 to 7 years of age - CONSTANCY
  • 33. Theories of Gender Role development Gender Schema Theory : Carol Martin and Charles Halverson - a pattern of beliefs and stereotypes about gender that children use to organize information about gender – related characteristics, experiences and expectations.
  • 34. Theories of Gender Role development Biological Theory – stresses the genetic and hormonal influences, in development of gender. Example: Androgen’s are the group of sex hormones that give men their ‘male’ characteristics. They are crucial to male sexual and reproductive function. They are also responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics in men, including facial and body hair growth, and bone and muscle development.
  • 35. Engendering Children: The vast majority of parents earnestly believed that the world was naturally divided into two mutual exclusive categories – male and female.
  • 36. Child Development Issues Parents and teachers, other children and television are all socializing influences that clearly play a part in making children aware that gender differences matter and they are expected to conform to stereotypical behavior. The fact that adults treat children differentially according to their sex does not mean that any behavioral differences in the children are the effects of such treatment. -boys are more active and disruptive than girls. -boys are more likely to show greater resistance to control and less likely to be responsive to adult directives.
  • 37. Application; SOCIALIZING CHILDREN INTO GENDER EQUALITY Children are socialized to behave in gender-defined roles. The effects of living in a gendered (and sexist) society is that boys and girls are differentially prepared for adulthood. Boys routinely are socialized to learn to work in teams and to compete, and girls routinely are socialized to value nurturing. Research indicates that parents participate in gender-typing by rewarding gender-typical play and punishing gender-atypical play.
  • 38. Early Childhood Messages from Parents and Preschool Teacher... Big boys don't cry Girls are crybabies Take it like a man Be polite Men don't belong to kitchen Sugar and spice and everything nice... Never admit defeat You're daddy little girls Only the strong survive Don't get your dress dirty Boys who give others hugs are weird Be kind to others Boy's will be boys Mind your manners
  • 39. -=Emotional Development=- emotional development in young children has to do with... -how young children feel about themselves (e.g., confident, always scared, eager to learn, proud of their culture, afraid of being wrong), -how they behave (e.g., constantly fighting, easily upset, able to deal with conflict) -and how they relate to others, especially people who matter to them (e.g., parents, teachers, and friends).
  • 40. -=Emotional Development=- EARLY EMOTIONS; -primary emotions : include surprise, interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust... -secondary emotions : jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt...
  • 41. Culture and Emotion -Is there a universality in classifying emotion? -are emotions expressed in the same way throughout the world? -do people react the same way to emotional situation? -Can facial expression be interpreted the same universally? -Classifying emotion -Expression of emotion -How to Act -Facial Expression
  • 42. Culture shape emotions... Culture suggest appropriate antecedent conditions for emotion...
  • 43. Culture shape appraisal of emotion... ...if asked what is the feeling by the fish on the front ?
  • 44. Culture shape appraisal of emotion... ...”HELP YOURSELF”
  • 45. Emotional Understandings in Early Childhood... AGE Emotional Development 6 Months to 2 years old -recognized four basic emotion (happy, sad, mad, scared) 2 to 3 years old -progressively sophisticated in talking about their emotion. 2 to 4 years old -appropriate facial expression when provided with a verbal label. 3 to 4 years old -begin to be able to determine what emotion are appropriate to particular situation. Emotions color the experience of every young child, whether the emotions consist of exuberant delight, frustrated fury, or anguished distress, and they offer a window into the social and emotional development of the young child.
  • 46. -the expansion of children emotions communications parallel the heightened display of feeling that appeared during the late toddler year and early preschool period. Temper tantrums are common and negativism and resistance to adults seem to peak. Self-conscious emotion – develops on the period of self awareness. Emotion include embarrassment, empathy, pride, shame and envy. Common Emotion: ANGER AND FEAR FEAR – is unpleasant emotion caused by the belief that someone or something is dangerous, likely to cause pain, or a threat. -not all fears are bad – some provide us safeguard against harms and danger.
  • 47. Common Emotion: anger and fear ANGER – is an arousal state that is primarily socially instigated, often under condition of threat or frustration. -when adults view of anger as something “bad” or they refuse to recognized children anger, children fail to learn how to deal effectively with anger feeling. = helping children deal effectively with anger =  distinguishing between anger feelings and angry acts  learning self control  delaying gratification
  • 48. as a parent, i can not always protect my child with reality of life. but, i can equip him the skill's and the abilities that he need's to cope-up with it and to deal with it... successfully!!! Thank you for listening and God bless us all!! Prepared by: JURY P. JURILLA 08/17/13
  • 49. FAMILY INFLUENCES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Parents as Guidance Engineers Social pressure begin in earnest during the second year of life in most cultures around the world. Although there are no hard and fast rules for effective discipline, some guidelines were offered such as the use of inductive reasoning, avoiding harsh, physical punishment, having the discipline fit the misbehavior, being authoritative, being in control, and showing warmth. Disciplining Across the Ages The term discipline comes from the word disciple, meaning “one who gives instruction.” Discipline goes beyond the confines of short-time, immediate behavioral gains, it influences children’s future behavior. Parenting Styles Parental responsiveness-refers to the degree to which parents respond to children’s needs in an accepting, supportive manner. Parental demandingness- refers to the extent to which parents expect and demand nature, responsible behavior from children. Indulgent Parenting Styles Parents are minimally controlling but affectionate; low levels of demandingness and high levels of responsiveness. Authoritative Parenting Styles Parents exhibit a high level of demandingness and high level of responsiveness. Indifferent Parenting Styles Parents are low on demandingness and low on responsiveness.
  • 50. GUIDANCE STRATEGIESReinforcement Consistency Punishment When Punishment Goes Awry: Child Abuse Types of Abuse: 1. Physical child abuse – Characterized by overt physical violence to the child. 2. Neglect – The failure of the caregiver to properly provide an atmosphere in which the child has responsible safeguards for physical health, safety, and general well-being. 3. Sexual Abuse – The involvement of a developmentally immature child or adolescent and an adult in sexual activities that violate social mores.
  • 51. Categories of Child Abuse: Physical Abuse Emotional Abuse Neglect Sexual Abuse • Minor • Serious (such as bone fractures of head injuries) • Premeditated/ sadistic • Burns and scalds • Bites • Repeated abuse resulting from lack of control • Punishment with implements • Genital/anal area injuries • Rejection • Lack of praise and encouragement • Lack of comport and love • Lack of attachment • Lack of proper stimulation (such as fun and play) • Lack of continuing of care (frequent moves) • Lack of appropriate handling (such as age-inappropriate expectations) • Serious overprotection • Inappropriate non physical punishment (such as locking in bedrooms) • Abandonment or desertion • Leaving alone • Malnourishment. Lack of food, or erratic feeding • Lack of warmth • Lack of adequate clothing • Unhygienic home condition • Lack of protection or exposure to danger (including moral danger or lack of supervision appropriate to the child’s age) • Persistent failure to attend school • Nonorganic failure to thrive • Inappropriate fondling • Mutual masturbation • Digital penetration • Oral/genital contact • Anal or vaginal intercourse • Exploitation for pornography • Exposure to pornography
  • 52. Characteristic of Abusing Parents Parents who physically abuse children often display deficient social skills, low social desirability, high anxiety, and lack of receptiveness and support-seeking behavior . Effects of Abuse and Neglect on Children Child abuse is more than bruises or broken bones. While physical abuse is shocking due to the scars it leaves, not all child abuse is as obvious. Ignoring children’s needs, putting them in unsupervised, dangerous situations, or making a child feel worthless or stupid are also child abuse. Regardless of the type of child abuse, the result is serious emotional harm. Effects of Incest on the Child - effects of incest include regression to earlier behavior, such as thumb sucking, eating disorder, sleep disorder, bed wetting, tics, or excessive fears.
  • 53. Helping Abuse Children Foster Care - Family-based foster care is generally preferred to other forms of out of home care. Foster care is intended to be a short term solution until a permanent placement can be made. Generally the first choice of adoptive parents is a relative such as an aunt, uncle or grandparent. If no related family member is willing or able to adopt, the next preference is for the child to be adopted by the foster parents or by someone else involved in the child's life (such as a teacher or coach). This is to maintain continuity in the child's life. If neither above option are available, the child may be adopted by someone who is a stranger to the child. Supportive Relationship - Having caring relationships is important to an individual’s emotional well-being. The way to develop supportive relationships is to be supportive to others. Spending time as much time as possible with people who have the qualities that support you and spending time away from individuals who do not have those qualities is the best route to developing supportive relationships. Supportive relationships help reduce stress and improve an individual’s general health and well-being.
  • 54. Thank You! by: JURY P. JURILLA